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PRAWR 230-233 (Cup Marked Stone) — Miscellaneous

Details of stonea on Pastscape

Group of five Bronze Age cup and ring marked stones (in situ).
A large boulder bearing cup markings is situated at SE 1037 4703. Found during field investigation. See GP AO/61/321/4 for illustration. (1)
SE 1039 4703. Rock in Panorama Woods with single cup & ring carving. Scheduled RSM No 25358. A partly grass-covered gritstone boulder measuring 1.6m x 1.2m x 0.8m. The carving consists of a simple cup and ring.
SE 1038 4702. Group of four carved rocks in Panorama Woods. Scheduled RSM No 25359. Four adjacent outcrops of bedrock, each with carvingson their upper surfaces. The carvings consist of: on the most easterly rock, six oval markings, eight cups and faint circles and lines; on the next rock, a sub-rectangular groove surrounding five cups, and 28 cups, one oval marking and three large 'basin'-like cups; on the next rock, one oval cup; and on the westernmost rock, three cups and one depression.

Silver Well Stones (Cup and Ring Marks / Rock Art) — Miscellaneous

Details of stones on Pastscape

Group of four Bronze Age cup and ring marked stones (in situ).
SE 100 466. Silver Well, Ilkley Moor. Two cup and ring marked rocks, covered with vegetation. (1)
SE 1003 4656. Cup & ring marked rock 370m SSW of Panorama Reservoir. Scheduled RSM No 25390. A carved gritstone rock measuring 0.95m x 0.95m x 0.25m. The carving consists of 14 cups, two with incomplete rings, and several grooves.
SE 1025 4657. Flat carved rock 150m SW of Silver Well Cottage. Scheduled RSM No 25391. A carved, flat, gritstone rock partly covered in vegetation. The visible part measures 4.2m x 2.2m x 0.3m. The carving consists of 16 clear cups, and four other possible cups and grooves.
SE 1005 4658. Cup & ring marked rock 350m SSW of Panorama Reservoir. Scheduled RSM No 25392. A carved gritstone rock partly covered in vegetation. The visible part measures 1.1m x 0.6m x 0.3m. The carving consists of 20 cups, three with double rings, and eight more with an enclosing groove.
SE 1001 4636. Prominent cup & ring marked rock on Coarse Stone Edge. Scheduled RSM No 25398. A carved gritstone rock measuring 3m x 1.9m x 1.3m. The carving consists of a shallow cup with an irregular ring. (2)

The Sepulchre Stone (Cup and Ring Marks / Rock Art) — Miscellaneous

Details of stone on Pastscape

Bronze Age cup-and-ring marked stone (in situ).
SE 0907 4700. Cup & ring marked rock known as the Sepulchre Stone, Addingham Moorside. Scheduled RSM No 25352. A carved gritstone rock with conspicuous folded strata, measuring 8m x 7m x 2.3m. It is situated 4m N of the path along Addingham Moorside, between Piper Crag and Woodhouse Crag. The carving consists of several 'normal' cups, one with a ring, grooves and also some large basin-like cups.

Neb Stone (Cup Marked Stone) — Miscellaneous

Details of stone on Pastscape

Named Bronze Age cup marked rock and two adjacent cup marked rocks (in situ).
[SE 1038 4639] Neb Stone [T.I.] (1) The Neb Stone has cup marks upon it. Situated at the upper extremity of the boundary-wall of Silver Well Farm at 1100 ft. O.D. (2) See GP AO/61/320/7 for illustration. (3)
SE 1039 4639. Two carved rocks near Neb Stone. Scheduled RSM No 25393. Two adjacent carved gritstone rocks, both partly under the wall near Neb Stone. The carvings consist of several cups on each rock. (4)

The Anvil Stone (Cup Marked Stone) — Miscellaneous

Details of stone on Pastscape

Bronze Age cup and ring marked stone (in situ).
SE 0928 4700. Carved rock known as the Anvil Rock. Scheduled RSM No 25364. (1)

WoodHouse Crag (Cup Marked Stone) — Miscellaneous

Details of stone on Pastscape

Bronze Age cup and ring carving on stone reused as gatepost.
SE 0949 4696. Recumbent gatepost with cup & ring carving 57m W of the Swastika Stone. The gatepost measures 1.85m x 0.5m x 0.33m. The carving consists of two cups with rings. (1)

The Swastika Stone (Cup and Ring Marks / Rock Art) — Miscellaneous

Details of stone on Pastscape

[SE 0944 4699] SWASTIKA STONE. (1)
The Swastika Stone, a sculptured rock, is considered by Cowling to belong to the E.B.A., but Elgee described the design as
'essentially characteristic of Late Iron Age craftsmanship'. [See Illus. card] (2-3)
SE 0955 4696 The Swastika Stone is a large natural boulder with a well defined carving in swastika form on its upper surface. It is now scheduled (a) and is protected by iron railings. See G.P. AO/65/155/4 (replica in foreground). (4)
Surveyed at 1:10,000. Condition unchanged from report of 15.9.65. (5)
SE 0955 4696. Swastika stone, Ilkley Moor. Additional reference. (5a)
SE 0955 4696. Carved rock known as the Swastika Stone. Scheduled RSM No 25388. The carving consists of a curvilinear carved figure of Swastika shape wuth ten cups fitted into the five curved arms, and eight other cups on the east side. The additional carving on a smaller piece of rock is a copy made this century. Scheduled text classifies rock as Bronze Age. (6)

Sands Wood (Round Barrow(s)) — Miscellaneous

Details of barrow on Pastscape

The earthwork remains of a bowl barrow, located in the southern corner of Sands Wood. The barrow is sited on the north side of a ridge on gently sloping ground. It survives as a well rounded mound 20 metres in diameter and 1.5 metres high, surrounded by the slight impression of a broad and largely infilled ditch. The berm between the outer edge of the cenral mound and the inner lip of the encircling ditch is gently sloping, but obviously not as steep as the sides of the central mound, and is slightly elongated north to south. The form of the berm is considered to be the result of weathering of the mound and ditch sides. The mound, ditch and encircling berm together comprise an area of roughly 30 metres in diameter. Scheduled.

Star Carr (Mesolithic site) — Miscellaneous

Details of site on Pastscape

The buried remains of an Early Mesolithic settlement site on the edge of a former lake at Star Carr. The site was identified by John Moore in 1947 and partially excavated in 1949-51. Further archaeological excavations in the 1980s and the 2000s have demonstrated in situ evidence of built structures. During the Mesolithic period the monument site was a peninsula of dry land that extended southwards into Lake Flixton, a former lake of nearly 5km by 2km. This peninsula can now be seen as a rise in the ground surface. Radiocarbon dating and archaeological evidence indicates that the site was occupied on a seasonal basis intermittently over about a couple of centuries around 9,000BC.

Excavations in the 1980s found parts of a timber platform with evidence of carpentry using stone tools, representing the earliest known example of carpentry in Europe. In 2008 a further structure 5-6 metres in diameter was identified, which was defined by scatters of flintwork and a hollow surrounded by post settings. It has been interpreted as a hut and is sited on higher ground than the platform on the western side of the peninsula. Discovered during the 1949-51 excavations was a brushwood floor thought to overlay what would have been reedbeds. Artefacts found at the site include organic material not found at any other Mesolithic site in Britain, antler frontlets, barbed points made from antler, flints, microliths and plant remains. Peat drainage is having an adverse affect on the unexcavated organic remains which rely heavily on waterlogged soils for their preservation.

Devil's Stone (Staple Fitzpaine) (Standing Stone / Menhir) — Miscellaneous

Details of stone on Pastscape

A standing stone known as "The Devil's Stone" was alleged to be of prehistoric origin. Field investigation found the massive quartz block measuring 2.1m long, 1.2m wide and 1.65m high and due to its proximity to a quarry thought it more likely to be of medieval date or later.
The Somerset SMR (No: 33497) records a standing stone of uncertain date from field name evidence (`Hour Stone' on Tithe Map) and local tradition. (1)
At SS 91427 38665 in an improved pasture field immediately adjacent to a massive limestone quarry (SS 93 NW 57) is a massive quartz block. The stone measures 2.1 m long, 1.2 m wide and is 1.65 m high. The farmer states that the local name for the stone is `The Devil's Stone' and that tradition links it to the Devil hurling material from Dunkery Beacon.
The stone appears unlikely to be prehistoric in origin. Its close proximity to the limestone quarry suggests rather a medieval, or more likely early post-medieval origin.
(Incorrectly plotted on NMR 1:10,000 record sheet) (2)

Rudston Monolith (Standing Stone / Menhir) — Miscellaneous

Details of stone on Pastscape

Late Neolithic or Early Bronze Age standing stone in churchyard, with modern cap of metal, and suggested cup and ring markings. The stone is approximately 8 metres high, 1.75 metres wide and 1 metre thick, the stone tapers to a point which at some point has been broken and repaired with a lead hood. Excavations in the 18th century suggested the monument extends as deep below the ground as it stands above. The monolith is of gritstone, the nearest source of which is 10-20 miles away. It is unclear whether it was brought to the site in the Neolithic/Bronze Age or arrived much earlier in a glacier flow. It has been suggested that the stone marks the convergence of the Rudston cursus monuments. Cursus A passes to the east of the monolith and cursus C passes to the north, where they converge. The terminus of cursus B is probably on the spur of land on which the monolith stands, but this is concealed by the village. Cursus D runs along the valley floor below the monolith. There is no dating evidence to suggest which came first, but if the monolith is of Late Neolithic/Early Bronze Age date it almost certainly post-dates the cursuses.

Greenwells No 62 (Round Barrow(s)) — Miscellaneous

Details of barrow on Pastscape

Round barrow, now just a slight rise. The barrow was excavated in 1864 by Greenwell and a rescue excavation was carried out in 1968 by the Ministry of Public Buildings and Works as the monument was being destroyed by ploughing. It is probably that the primary burials were destroyed when a burial pit was cut through the mound, the pit contained two cists, one with inhumations and a beaker, the other a cremation and beaker. The 1968 excavations revealed Neolithic pottery and flints on the old ground surface beneath the north-east quadrant of the mound. The secondary burials from the central pit were removed in the 19th century, however the 1968 excavations revealed three more secondary burials. The first was a crouched inhumation, on its right side with its head towards the centre of the mound, without any grave goods and was found 6 metres east of the centre within the area of the turf mound. The second was on the north-east edge of the central pit. It was a crouched inhumation without any grave goods, partly on its right side with the head slumped forward on to the chest, it was in a shallow pit just below the level of the pre-barrow turf. The third burial had been cut through the chalk capping of the barrow. It was also a crouched inhumation without any grave goods, the body had been place partly on its back with its knees drawn up to the right side and hands crossed on the chest. The barrow was surrounded by a wide ditch cut into the chalk.

Rudston Beacon (Sacred Hill) — Miscellaneous

Details of Beacon on Pastscape

A Bronze Age round barrow still extant as an earthwork mound circa 32 metres in diameter and 1.5 metres high. In the 1870s Greenwell described it as "almost entirely removed many years ago, when bones are said to have been found in large quantities". There is documentary evidence for re-use of the mound as a beacon, possibly as early as 1573 if not before. More recently the mound has been damaged by the presence of an Air Ministry observation point and the erection of an Ordnance Survey trig point. (TA 09466558) Rudston Beacon (NR) (1)
(TA 09466558) Rudston Beacon; described by Greenwell (2) as "almost entirely removed many years ago, when bones are said to have been found in large quantities". In 1963 (3) it survived as a mound, 19.8m diameter, 0.76 high, overgrown with brambles and bushes, and damaged by an Air Ministry observation post on the summit adjacent to an OS trig point. (2-3)
"There were beacons in 1573 at 'Many Howes in Rudston Field', presumably on the hill by the southern parish boundary, near several barrows, on which a later beacon certainly stood". (a) The later beacon was probably taken down circa 1830 (b). (4) Now cleared of vegetation and visible as the remains of a turf-covered mound about 32m diameter and 1.5m in maximum height. It has been severely mutilated in the S (presumably by the observation post mentioned) where the interior has been removed almost to ground level. The OS, pillar occupies the highest part of the barrow in the NW. Published Survey (25") Revised. (5) TA 095 655. Rudston Beacon (and round barrows to east). Scheduled No HU/68. (6)

Willerby Wold House (Round Barrow(s)) — Miscellaneous

Details of barrows on Pastscape

[TA 01107630] Tumuli [NR]. (1) Two tumuli on Willerby Wold at a place called Fry Moor.
The largest is 105 feet in diameter and 12 ft high. It contained a small cist in the centre but no other object.
The smaller barrow is 66 ft in diameter and at a depth of 6 ft a skull was found together with a few bones. A perfect skeleton of an adult was discovered 18" deeper. It was in a crouched position and in association with an "urn" 7" high (crushed but now restored). "Rude flint arrowheads" were found in the mound material. [It is suggested that the above descriptions may refer to this site, but not confirmed. Fry Moor does not seem to be shown on 6" plan. (2) The site of the smaller barrow is marked by the silhouette of a mound 0.5m high on the fence bank, and amorphous remains to the east of the fence.
The other is 1.0m high, and under pasture. Published survey (25") of both revised.
Fry Moor is unknown locally. (3) TA 011 763. Round barrow W of Willerby Wold House. Scheduled no. NY/788. (4)

Willy Howe (Artificial Mound) — Miscellaneous

Details of barrow on Pastscape

Two Bronze Age round barrows, both excavated, one contained a small cist in the centre, the other contained a crouched inhumation, an urn and some flint arrowheads, both still visible as slight earthworks
[TA 01107630] Tumuli [NR]. (1) Two tumuli on Willerby Wold at a place called Fry Moor.
The largest is 105 feet in diameter and 12 ft high. It contained a small cist in the centre but no other object.
The smaller barrow is 66 ft in diameter and at a depth of 6 ft a skull was found together with a few bones. A perfect skeleton of an adult was discovered 18" deeper. It was in a crouched position and in association with an "urn" 7" high (crushed but now restored). "Rude flint arrowheads" were found in the mound material.
[It is suggested that the above descriptions may refer to this site, but not confirmed. Fry Moor does not seem to be shown on 6" plan. (2) The site of the smaller barrow is marked by the silhouette of a mound 0.5m high on the fence bank, and amorphous remains to the east of the fence. The other is 1.0m high, and under pasture. Published survey (25") of both revised. Fry Moor is unknown locally. (3) TA 011 763. Round barrow W of Willerby Wold House. Scheduled no. NY/788. (4)

South Side Mount (Artificial Mound) — Miscellaneous

Details of barrow on Pastscape

A round barrow still extant as a substantial earthwork. It was excavated in the later 19th century by Greenwell, who described it as a mound 100 feet in diameter and 9 feet high and "formed entirely of chalk, with the exception of a layer of dark fatty earth which rested on the natural surface" and was 1 to 2.5 feet thick. It was thickest towards the centre, and extended across the whole of the area covered by the mound. It contained much burnt earth and charcoal, as well as numerous animal bones, potsherds and flints. The mound included or covered the remains of at least 23 interments. The only ones beneath the mound were a child and the remains of a young female in a wood-lined hollow in the natural surface roughly 7 feet north-northeast of the centre. Greenwell regarded this as the primary interment. All the other interments were within the mound, and were predominantly crouched or incomplete inhumations of Early Bronze Age date, associated items included whole or fragmentary Beakers and Food Vessels. A group of 5 male inhumations, at least 3 of which were extended, may have been of Anglo-Saxon date although this is incapable of proof. The date of the suggested primary interment and of the barrow's construction is unclear. Beaker and Food Vessel inhumations are clearly secondary, while leaf arrowheads are among the sizeable collection of material recovered from the mound.

Kirkheads (Round Barrow(s)) — Miscellaneous

Details of barrow on Pastscape

A round barrow excavated in 1889 by Greenwell and again in 1969 by Brewster, the latter due to extensive damage being caused by ploughing. Beneath the mound, Greenwell located two concentric ditch circuits, though Brewster was only able to locate the outermost of the two. Greenwell found several crouched inhumations. At the centre was a disturbed flint cairn containing the bones of an adult male and an adult female, one of them with a Beaker. The barrow is best known for one of the secondary burials. A grave containing a child inhumation was accompanied by three chalk "drums", each decorated with a variety of incised designs. The inhumation would appear to be secondary to, and at best contemporary with, the central Beaker-associated interments, although the decorative motifs incised onto the drums has much in common with those found on later Neolithic Grooved Ware pottery. A considerable quantity of material, mainly pottery and flint, was recovered from the mound. These finds include Peterborough Ware and Bronze Age sherds, plus scrapers and cores. Brewster was able to locate most of the features excavated by Greenwell with the exception of the inner ditch. He also found some additional burials, one of them accompanied by 2 Beakers and 50 jet beads. He also excavated a pit beneath the mound containing two sherds of Early Neolithic bowl pottery.

Ba'l Hill (Artificial Mound) — Miscellaneous

Details of barrow on Pastscape

A round barrow of Neolithic origin excavated in 1894 by Mortimer. At the time, it was 83 feet in diameter and 12 feet high. Apparently the top had been flattened and its circumference increased by "rabbit diggers, &c.", according to Mortimer, who suggested that its original dimensions had been a maximum 75 feet diameter and 15 to 18 feet in height. In the early 1990s, the mound was steep-sided, 2.75 metres high and circa 40 metres in diameter, surrounded by a ditch surviving as a slight depression on the northeast side, but apparently visible on air photographs as a concentric segmented cropmark. Excavation showed the inner core of the mound to comprise peaty soil, with an outer covering of white chalk gravel. 18 feet south-southeast of the centre, laid onthe original surface, were the remains of 5 skeletons, some at least representing crouched inhumations. The skull and bones of a pig were with them, and some Neolithic potsherds were nearby. 25 to 30 feet west of the centre was an arc of shallow slots, each circa 6 feet long, up to 18 inches wide and 10 inches deep. No artefacts were in the fills. Above the ground surface, within the inner mound, were further burials. 7 feet southeast of the centre were the remains of a cremated child, and nearby were 2 unburnt skull fragments (from an adult). 9 feet east of the centre was a crouched inhumation with a leaf arrowhead by the pelvis. Just east of the centre was another cruched inhumation. Other finds recovered, presumably all from within the mound, include a sandstone pounder, a number of flints, potsherds, animal remains and a red deer antler, as well as large quantities of frog and toad remains.

Rudston A and B (Long Barrow) — Miscellaneous

Details of long barrow A on Pastscape

Approximate site of two long barrows, one with a possible round barrow at the western end, recorded by Greenwell circa 1870 (see TA 16 NW 70 for the second barrow). The principle mound was aligned east-west, with either of the two extremities being of a greater elevation than the middle part. The mound was 137 ft long with a mean breadth of 40ft, the west end was 4.5ft high and the east 5ft. The long barrow contined numerous animal bones, flint chippings, charcoal and sherds of plain, dark-coloured pottery throughout the whole of its length but pricipally at the level of the old ground surface. At the west end and below the centre of the round barow was the body of a young adult women. The inhumation was 2ft above the level of the natural surface and just in front of the right tibia was a "drinking cup". At a level 6" higher (the head lying above the womans knees) were the remains of a child aged about 8 or 9. Immediately above the head was a flint knife 1.75" long. Underneath the woman, at the level of the natural surface, was a wooden beam which covered a grave which was 7ft long, 4.5ft wide and 2ft deep. This grave contained the body of an adult of uncertain sex, behind the head was a "drinking cup" , three flint scrapers and some chippings were also found in the grave. Just beyond the feet of this inhumation were the remains of a young woman which had been distrubed and relaid. They had been placed in a heap with the skull on top of the other bones. The mound also contained the remains of a male of large stature, a child and a single piece of burnt bone.

Details of long barrow B on Pastscape

The approximate site of the second of two long barrows recorded by Greenwell circa 1870 (see TA 16 NW 4 for further details). The mound was 190ft long by 50ft wide and 4ft high. No burials were found when the barrow was excavated, although flint chippings, charcoal and fragments of pottery occured in several places.

Beacon Cursus — Miscellaneous

Rudston cursus A

Monument No. 79500

Details of cursus on Pastscape

The Rudston cursus group consists of four cursuses stretching along the bottom and sides of the Great Wold Valley. At least one end of each of the monument are to be found on the elevated chalk ridges which surround Rudston. The valley contains the Gypsey Race, one of the rare streams across the chalklands, and two of the cursuses (A and C) cross this stream. The Rudston group contains an unparalleled concentration of cursus monuments. Cursus A is the southern most of the group. The southern end of the cursus survives as an earthwork and the remainder is visible on air photographs as two parallel ditches. The cursus is 2700 metres long by circa 58 metres, it tapers to 41 metres at the south terminal. Cursus A is the only one of the group where both ends are visible, both of the terminals are square in plan. The earthwork was excavated in the mid 19th century by Greenwell and showed what appeared to be a round barrow raised upon the surface of a long mound. This excavation produced six burials (two with Beakers), only one of which Greenwell considered to be primary, and a considerable amount of pottery. These burials were inserted into the south end of the cursus monument in the early bronze age. Greenwell also found sherds of earlier Neolithic pottery, along with worked flint and animal bones on the ground surface beneath the bank of the cursus. A second excavation across the west ditch in 1958 recovered 24 small pieces of Beaker pottery from the bottom 18 inches of the ditch fill, excluding the primary fill, and 4 larger pieces from the primary fill. There is evidence to suggest that the ditch was recut at this point explaining the presence of the later pottery.

Rudston Cursus B

Monument No. 1036040

Details of cursus on Pastscape

One of a group of 4 Neolithic cursus monuments. The cursus is visible as a cropmark along a dry valley floor. The end of the cursus is probably concealed by Rudston village. The cursus is 1550 metres long by 65-80 metres wide. It has been suggested that cursus B and cursus D may be part of the same cursus that bends somewhere under the village, but this is unlikely, as it would require a change of angle of around 60 degrees.

Rudston Cursus C

Monument No. 1036047

Details of cursus on Pastscape

One of a group of 4 prehistoric cursus monuments, Cursus C is visible as a cropmark. The cursus is 1480 metres long and 50-60 metres wide, though neither of the terminals are visible. The western end of the cursus fades out near the York road and to the east the ditches disappear into the Bridlington Gate Plantation. Two trenches were excavated by Kinnes in 1978 but no artifacts were recovered. The cursus crosses Gypsey Race at right angles.

Rudston Cursus D

Monument No. 1036049

Details of cursus on Pastscape

One of a group of 4 cursus monuments, Cursus D is visible as a cropmark. The cursus is 4000 metres long by 50-90 metres wide. The north terminal of the cursus is visible but the south end probably lies under the village of Rudston. It has been suggested that cursus D and cursus B are part of the same monument that join somewhere under the village , but this is unlikely as it would require a change of angle of around 60 degrees.

Windmill Hill (Round Barrow(s)) — Miscellaneous

Details of site on Pastscape

(SK 820279) Windmill Hill. (1)
To the west of 'Old Wood', at Croxton Kerrial, is Windmill Hill, on which is a mound supposed to be a tumulus, which, however, has never been explored. (2)
A Windmill mound. Published survey 25" correct. (3)]

Bunbury Hillfort — Miscellaneous

Details of hillfort on Pastscape

A univallate hillfort situated within the grounds of Alton Towers. It is situated on a naturally defensible spur of land which falls away westwards towards the river Churnet, and is defended to the north and east by the valley of the Slain Hollow. The site was surveyed by RCHME field staff in 1988. The survey identified that only a fraction of the original hillfort earthworks survive following prolonged and extensive destruction through land use. It was likely that the hillfort once covered a much wider area than suggested by the existing earthworks. The surviving defences comprise two main sections of rampart along the northwest and southwest escarpment edges. Both sections appear to be of a single construction phase. A low bank along the southwest escarpment edge, which has in the past been interpreted as a boundary bank, was identified as another section of original rampart. The survey also identified an isolated bank, 23 metres in length and 3 metres high which also may be a remnant of the original hillfort defences. An element of the rampart is also visible on lidar, and was mapped as part of the Staffordshire National Mapping Programme project. The latest condition of the site could not be discerned due to tree cover. Scheduled.

Cantre'r Gwaelod (Mesolithic site) — News

4,000-year-old red deer skull and antlers found in Borth


The skull and antlers of a deer dating back 4,000 years have been found.
Researchers from the University of Wales Trinity Saint David are examining the red deer remains, discovered on a beach in Borth, Ceredigion.
They were first spotted in early April, but were not recovered until Friday due to the tides.
Dr Ros Coard, from the university, said: "The individual was certainly in the prime of his life showing full development of the large antlers."
When the skull was first seen, it was reported to the Royal Commission in Aberystwyth which alerted Dr Martin Bates, of UWTSD's school of school of archaeology, history and anthropology.
The people who found it photographed the area where it was spotted and this was used by the team who manually searched the water at low tide until the skull was found under 1m (3.2ft) of water.
This discovery comes from a channel cut through an area which in the 1960s turned up bones of a large auroch, an extinct form of large wild cattle that once lived in Europe.
The forest and peat deposits either side of this channel date to between about 6,000 and 4,000 years ago - the time of the last hunter gatherers and the earliest farmers in Britain.
Dr Bates said: "This is a wonderful discovery that really brings the forest and its environs to light.
"Although the exact age of the skull has yet to be confirmed, it's probable that the channel within which the find was made is contemporary with the forest and so an age in excess of 4,000 years old is likely."
Dr Coard, a faunal specialist at UWTSD, added: "Although the antlers and partial skull still have to undergo full analysis, the antlers can be said to come from a very large, mature male red deer."

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-wales-mid-wales-36157302?SThisFB

News

Half of Western European men descended from one Bronze Age ‘king’


Half of Western European men are descended from one Bronze Age ‘king’ who sired a dynasty of elite nobles which spread throughout Europe, a new study has shown.
The monarch, who lived around 4,000 years ago, is likely to have been one of the earliest chieftains to take power in the continent.
He was part of a new order which emerged in Europe following the Stone Age, sweeping away the previous egalitarian Neolithic period and replacing it with hierarchical societies which were ruled by a powerful elite.
It is likely his power stemmed from advances in technology such as metal working and wheeled transport which enabled organised warfare for the first time.
Although it is not known who he was, or where he lived, scientists say he must have existed because of genetic variation in today’s European populations.
Dr Chris Tyler-Smith, from the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, said: “One of the most novel and exciting things we have found in the study is the extraordinary explosion in numbers of males at specific times.
“In Europe there was huge population expansion in just a few generations. Genetics can’t tell us why it happened but we know that a tiny number of elite males were controlling reproduction and dominating the population.
“Half of the Western European population is descended from just one man. We can only speculate as to what happened. The best explanation is that they may have resulted from advances in technology that could be controlled by small groups of men.
“Wheeled transport, metal working and organised warfare are all candidate explanations that can now be investigated further.”
The study analysed sequence differences between the Y chromosomes of more than 1200 men from 26 populations around the world using data generated by the 1000 Genomes Project.
The Y chromosome is only passed from father to son and so is wholly linked to male characteristics and behaviours. Mutations reveal which are related to each other and how far apart they are genetically so that researchers can build a family tree.
Dr Yali Xue, lead author from the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, explained: “This pattern tells us that there was an explosive increase in the number of men carrying a certain type of Y chromosome, within just a few generations.
“We only observed this phenomenon in males, and only in a few groups of men.”
The team used the data to build a tree of the 1200 Y chromosomes. It shows how they are all related to one another. As expected, they all descend from a single man who lived approximately 190,000 years ago.
The most intriguing and novel finding was that some parts of the tree were more like a bush than a tree, with many branches originating at the same point.
The earliest explosive increases of male numbers occurred 50,000–55,000 years ago, across Asia and Europe, and 15,000 years ago in the Americas.
There were also later expansions in sub-Saharan Africa, Western Europe, South Asia and East Asia, at times between 4,000 and 8,000 years ago. The team believes the earlier population increases resulted from the first peopling by modern humans of vast continents, where plenty of resources were available.
Dr David Poznik, from Stanford University, California, first author on the paper, said: “We identified more than 60,000 positions where one DNA letter was replaced by another in a man with modern descendants, and we discovered thousands of more complex DNA variants.
“These data constitute a rich and publicly available resource for further genealogical, historical and forensic studies.”

The research was published in the journal Nature Genetics.

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/science/2016/04/25/half-of-british-men-descended-from-one-bronze-age-king/

Sarah Knapton, science editor
25 APRIL 2016 • 6:14PM

The Ridgeway (Ancient Trackway) — News

NT Crackdown on Ridgeway during Avebury Solstice


Western Daily Press

The National Trust and Wiltshire Police are to crack down on the 'number and behaviour' of people camping on Britain's oldest roads – the ancient Ridgeway near Avebury – for the summer solstice.

A new plan has been drawn up by the Trust, which owns the stone circle in the Wiltshire village, to clamp down on the growing numbers of people staying outside the village and blocking the Ridgeway, which runs along the hillside just to the east of the village.

The crackdown will also see more enforcement of tighter new parking restrictions at Avebury village itself, as the National Trust aims to curb the excesses of the revellers who gather there.

The move follows hugely controversial measures put in place by English Heritage for the summer solstice at Stonehenge, including charging £15 to park cars in the temporary car park, and banning alcohol on the site for the night.

While the crowds can reach 40,000 at Stonehenge to see the sunrise on the longest day in June, the solstice at Avebury is a much smaller affair. Crowds there can reach 5,000, and there already has been one major crackdown on what went on there.

There was absolute chaos in 2005 and 2006 when so many people parked all over the village that they completely blocked the main A361 Swindon to Devizes road, which runs through Avebury. During the 2000s, residents also complained consistently of drunken, loutish behaviour by revellers, including finding people vomiting, sleeping, urinating or defecating in their gardens. Many residents still go away for the two days either side of the solstice to avoid the event.

The National Trust and police clamped down on parking. It is no longer allowed anywhere outside the existing visitors' car park, which fills up almost as soon as it is opened on the eve of the solstice, and camper vans are banned.

But increasing numbers of people are heading to Avebury – anecdotally to avoid increased regulation at Stonehenge – and many camp wild along the Ridgeway, which is a short walk across the fields from Avebury village, and affords amazing views over the stone circle and Silbury Hill.

The Ridgeway there is the start of an ancient road that runs all the way to East Anglia and dates back to at least the creation of the Avebury stone circle more than 5,000 years ago.

The Trust said it wanted to make 'Solstice a more peaceful occasion', and its plan would make the celebrations at Avebury 'safe for everyone and respectful of the World Heritage Site'.

As part of the plan, the Police and Wiltshire Council will increase patrols on the Ridgeway – a byway east of Avebury where the number and behaviour of people gathering during Solstice has become a problem.

The National Trust said regular patrols of the byway 'will ensure safety, keep access along the byway open and prosecute and remove those found to be breaking the law'.

Jan Tomlin, the National Trust's General Manager in Avebury, said: "We want the Solstice at Avebury to continue to be known for being a peaceful, respectful occasion which all those who care most about the henge and the village would want it to be – that is why we are taking this action."

"As landowner we are concerned about the safety of anybody using our land – including the Ridgeway. A robust management plan as proposed and enforced by the council and Police is the right thing," she added.

Philip Whitehead, Wiltshire council's highways boss, said he was 'delighted' action was being taken. "I am delighted we are taking a real partnership approach to tackling the challenges the Summer Solstice brings to Avebury," he said. "It is a real team effort, and I look forward to another successfully managed event."

Read more: http://www.westerndailypress.co.uk/National-Trust-crackdown-Avebury-solstice/story-29147628-detail/story.html

Soulbury (Standing Stone / Menhir) — Images (click to view fullsize)

<b>Soulbury</b>Posted by Chance

Lanacombe 4 (Standing Stones) — Miscellaneous

Details of stones on Pastscape

SX 78644316 Stone setting LANACOMBE IV SS 7864 4316. Found by CJ Dunn during RCHME Fieldwork. (a)
A poorly preserved setting comprising two upright stones set 3.6m apart, C and D, and a recumbent slab A, possibly close to its original position. The present ground plan, though probably not complete, prescribes a triangle orientated WNW to ESE. Further stones, B and E, are probably natural features.
The setting occupies a lush, green area with rushy patches set amidst the vast area of coarse grass on Hanacombe. It is located on very gently sloping ground falling to the E, set back from the valley edge but well below the crest of Lanacombe. The site has extensive views in all directions bar the SW and it overlooks the valley junction of Hoccombe and Badgworthy.
All the stones appear to be of local, sedimentary sandstones of the Hangman Grits series.
This is one of four stone settings along the same valley side 660m SW is Lanacombe I (SS 74 SE 49); 360m SW is Lanacombe II (SS 74 SE 50) and 150m S is Lanacombe III (SS 74 SE 51). The lie of the hillside renders all three just not visible from the present site. Another setting SS 74 SE 86 is within sight on the S slope of Hoccombe Hill, 620m NW.
A further table of information on the stones is held in the archive. (1)

Hurdle Stone (Natural Rock Feature) — Miscellaneous

Details of stone on Pastscape

(ST 67694804). In Hurdlestone Wood is a very large erect boulder of millstone grit, in a line with several similar but smaller stones. It measures about 18 ft by 4 ft by some 20 ft high and seems to have been placed on end artificially, though perhaps in the course of quarrying. The group seems to have been given the name 'The Hurlers' and the large stone 'The Hurdle Stone', though these could be inventions of Skinner, who first drew attention to the group. H E Balch compares the big stone to a stone at Avebury. (Crawford visited the site and gives a 6" sketch, but he expresses no opinion about the group's purpose or function). (1)

Deerleap Stones (Standing Stones) — Miscellaneous

Details of stones on Pastscape

ST51794878 & 51794876. Two large standing stones, known as the Deer Leap Stones, were formerly situated in an old hedge bank, but this was grubbed out in 1967 the stones being left standing. (1)

Yonder Cross Stone (Standing Stone / Menhir) — Miscellaneous

Details of stone on Pastscape

ST 21022059. A ? glacial erratic 2.25m high, 1.29m broad and 50 to 70 cms thick with a rounded base tapering towards the top (which may have been trimmed) was unearthed during motorway construction in 1972.
The field (adjoining the find spot) called Yonder cross, and a nearby Bronze Age site (ST 22 SW 69) suggests that this is a probable Bronze Age standing stone. Five similar stones are known in the locality.
A petrographical report indicates the nearest source of the stone to be South Wales or alternatively under the Celtic Sea or English Channel.
The stone is now lying beside the motorway, at ST 21172063, awaiting a permanent site. (1)

Hangman's Rocks (Stone Circle) — Miscellaneous

Details of stone on Pastscape

(SY58389109. Sited from auth 1 and OS 1000 1975)
The Sarsen Stone Survey (a) of 1974-5 prompted a search for the site of Hangman's Rocks, noted by both Aubrey and Hutchins, and shown on the 1765 Bedford Estate Map as 3 stones. A thorough search revealed one sarsen 3m long by 1m wide lying in a hedge bank, doubtless the remains of the Hangman's Rock group. (1)

The Helstone (Standing Stone / Menhir) — Miscellaneous

Details of stone on Pastscape

[SY 57259149] MONOLITH [OE] (1) "Standing stone." (2) A rough block 6 1/2 ft high. 9 ft long and 2 1/2 ft wide. A standing stone (3) "Monolith" (4). (3-4) STANDING STONE [OE] (5) Scheluled Ancient Monument. (6)
This sarsen stands in a ploughed field. It is 2.2m high, 2.7m long at the base, and 0.5m thick. From the base it tapers to the top, assuming a triangular outline. The stone leans slightly to the S. There are no soil marks or indications of any other stone in the vicinity. (7)

Kingston Russell Cursus — Miscellaneous

Details of stone circle on Pastscape

(SY579912. Cursus sited from auth 1 and OS 1:10000 1975). A possible cursus has been recorded S.W of Kingston Farm. A sarsen stone 1.5m long, 0.85m wide and 0.35m thick was located in a chalk cut pit at SY57979118. Although it may be a natural stone removed during field clearence, its possible significance in relation to local prehistoric activity cannot be ruled out. (1) (illustration card 1, 'x')
Cropmarks of a possible cursus just southwest of the village of Kingston Russell. The feature appears on the north side of the A35 as a single ditch running parallel with the road before curving round towards and meeting the road. No cropmarks have yet been noted south of the road. Neither have any yet been observed east of the the road from Kingston Russell to the A35. However, the line of the possible cursus west of the Kingston Russel road is continued by the line of the pre-turnpike road, as marked on 1765 estate maps. This road was replaced circa 1776 by the new, turnpike, road immediately to the south on the line of the A35. A machine-cut section through the line of the cropmark found no trace of a ditch, which would appear to strengthen the possibility that the cropmark feature is not a cursus, although this leaves the terminal-like curve at the northwestern end to be explained. Another small trench excavated near the one noted above, but this time wholly "inside" the suggested cursus found a pit containing a large sarsen. Burial of an obstruction to cultivation appears the most likely explanation, although the proximity of a range of definite and possible prehistoric monuments appears to have given the sarsen greater significance than it might otherwise have attracted (see for example the standing stone SY 59 SE 30; the possible stone circle SY 59 SE 70; sarsens at SY 59 SE 87; as well as the various bank barrows and other cursus (see associated monuments). (1-2)

Kingston Russell (Stone Circle) — Miscellaneous

Details of nearby stones on Pastscape

(centred SY 57818776) Stones (NAT) (Three shown). (1) There is no apparent archaeological significance in these stones. The only surviving conglomerate is the most westerly one, a sarsen 1.2m long, 0.7m wide and 0.3m thick. It is just possible that the stone had some connection with the stone circle to the NW but this seems doubtful. (2) Like the stones of the circle, the remaining stone is prostrate. It is too far from the hedge to be the result of field clearing. (3)
Two stones of a similar kind to those comprising Kingston Russell Stone Circle (SY 58 NE 6) "from whence they seem to have been displaced", lie by the side of an adjoining fence. (4)

Portesham Standing Stones — Miscellaneous

Details of stones on Pastscape

(SY60698701) Standing Stones (NR) (Site of) (NAT) (1) "Four upright stones once stood here about, similar to those which compose the stone circle at Winterborne (possibly SY69SW17), in 1840 they were buried by the owner - W Manfield (now deceased) : the site shown was indicated by him". (2)

Corscombe (Standing Stones) — Miscellaneous

Details of stones on Pastscape

Boulders [NAT] [Three Shewn] (1) [ST 51370488] Standing Stones: Three stones 70 yds. S.S.W of Beckhams Coppice. They are set upright as though to form the end of a chamber. They measure 5' 9" high and 4' 6" wide, 3' 6" high and 5' wide, and 4' high and 2' 6" wide. 8 yards to the W. are two prone stones 5' long and another 50yds to the S.S.W. which measures 8' by 4'. The intervening space appears to have been disturbed. (2)
1/2 mile NW. of the Hoar Stones is a destroyed chambered long barrow consisting of 4 stones, locally known as The Devil's Arm Chair. [Probably applies.] (3)
Whereas the three stones are erected as if to form a chamber they are particularly weathered and are rather flat. Their heights are 1.2m, 1.5m and 1.8m. The significant fact about the entire group is that they are situated on the floor
of a steep sided valley. The ground between the group of three and the prostrate one to the south west has been dug out. The other prostrate stones are covered by bushes. There is evidence of light quarrying on the valley sides. These stones may be contemporary with the quarrying. (4) Perambulation revealed no traces of the alleged long barrow in the area stated. If the remark is intended to refer to these stones, the point is made that the site is topographically unsuitable, the orientation (NNE-SSW) is unusual, and the stones do not have the appearance of great age in their present situation. There seems little to warrant this site as an antiquity of any form. The legendary name "Devil's Arm Chair" was unknown to local people questioned. (5) These stones remain as described but they are not the remains of an archaeological feature or setting. (6)

Wur Stone (Standing Stone / Menhir) — Miscellaneous

Details of stone on Pastscape

A standing stone at Verwood (SU 0808), known as the "Wur Stone", was probably "Le Horeston" mentioned in a perambulation of the bounds of Cranborne Chase in the time of Edward I. It was a large block of sandstone and stood on the heath not far from the Ringwood road, but was thrown down and buried some time before 1872. (1-2)

Shovel Down & The Long Stone (Multiple Stone Rows / Avenue) — Miscellaneous

Details of the remaining Three Boys stone on Pastscape

(SX 66038549) Three Boys (Cromlech) (NR) (Remains of). (1)
The stone marking the southern end of a stone row ('F' SX 68 NE 16) is the only survivor of three such stones known as the Three Boys. It stands 4 1/2 feet high and leans over. The other two have been removed to form gateposts for a neighbouring enclosure. The suggestion that they formed the supporters of a dolmen is unlikely as the remaining stone would be quite unsuitable for this purpose. They were probably three unusually large stones used to mark the end of the stone row. (2)
(SX 66038549) Three Boys (NAT) Standing Stone (NR). (3) The remaining stone of Three Boys leans at 45o to the NNE; it is 1.7m long, 0.8m wide and 0.3m thick. Packing stones are visible at its base. A surrounding wet-hollow, diameter 3.7m, depth 0.4m,has been created by sheep. There is no trace of a mound. The situation, shape and size of the stone strongly suggests that it formed a terminal/blocking-stone to the double stone row (SX 68 NE/16 'F') which originally extended from the Three Boys to Long Stone. Published 1:2500 survey revised. (4) As described by authority 4. Se Sx 68 NE 16 E-F. (see also RCHME survey `The Shovel Down Stone Rows'(part 1) at 1:200 scale). (5)

Beardown Man (Standing Stone / Menhir) — Miscellaneous

Details of stone on Pastscape

(SX 59587961) Beardown Man (NAT) Standing Stone (NR) (1)
Beardown Man, a standing stone, some 11 feet 4 inches high lying a little to the west of Devil's Tor, Lydford. Dimensions
at ground level are north side 3 feet, south 2 feet 11 inches, west 1 feet 6 inches and east 11 1/2 inches. (2)
On the summit of the flattish top of Devil's Tor at approximately 139.0m OD is the 'Beardown Man' (name confirmed). The stone, which leans slightly south east, is 3.4m high, 1.0m by 0.4m in section, and in good condition. Revised at 1:10 000 on PFD See ground photograph. (3)
SX 59587961. Beardown Man. An impressive standing stone, in good condition and as described by authority (2). However, the long term stability of the stone is threatened by a deep, irregular hollow around its base. The stone is located off the crest of a ridge in open moorland. (4)
Merrivale Range Baseline Condition Survey visit. The monument is currently in a stable condition though is used by animals as a rubbing post (5)

Throwleigh (b) circle (Stone Circle) — Miscellaneous

Details of stone circle on Pastscape

The remains of a stone circle, not less than 60 feet in diameter situated a short distance to the west of Throwleigh circle (SX 68 NW 11). There are only four certain stones still standing, with possibly a fifth; the remainder have disappeared. (1)
Within the circle is a large irregular block, possibly a fallen standing stone, which at one time may have stood fully six foot high. Sited at SX 64778858. (2) Nothing visible on air photographs. (3)

Buttern Hill — Miscellaneous

Details of stone circle on Pastscape

Throwleigh Circle (Throwleigh SX 6690). One of the finest but least known Dartmoor stone circles. Standing on low ground, it has a diameter of 80-90 ft. Only 6 stones remain standing, but 36 are more or less in place though fallen, the largest being 6ft 9 in tall. On the slope to the west is another circle, with a diameter of 60ft. Only four stones remain standing. (1)
No evidence, either visual or documentary, can be found to substantiate Pevsner's assertion of a circle in or near Throwleigh. No known stone circle in the area accords with his description, and Worth does not record circles of this description, in this locality. (2)

Buttern Hill Stone Circle — Miscellaneous

Details of stone circle on Pastscape


(SX 64948847) Stone Circle (NR). (1)
Buttern Hill or Throwleigh stone circle is remarkable for occupying a position on low ground, near the bottom of a shallow valley west of Buttern Hill - a situation which argues against the "sacred" idea. Five stones are still standing, the tallest being 28 inches high with a curious though natural shape. There are nineteen fallen stones, the longest being 6 feet 9 inches; there are also 'triggers' giving a clear indication of the position formerly occupied by five stones now lost. The nearest equivalent true circle would have a diameter of 81 feet. R N Worth mentions the remains of a small cairn five or six
yards in from the southern edge. (2-3) Nothing visible on air photographs. (4)

Merrivale Stone Circle — Miscellaneous

Details of stone circle on Pastscape

(SX 55357463) Stone Circle (NR). (1)
A 60 ft diameter circle of ten stones about 1 ft 6 ins high.A trial trench cut from the centre southwards revealed no evidence of previous use. (2) In 1895 examination of some depressions near the stone circle, revealed pits with packing stones which had apparently been the sockets of standing stones. (3)
A stone circle with a diameter of 20.0m. measured from northeast to southwest and 18.0m from northwest to southeast. It is formed by eleven stones spaced between 2.7m and 6.7m. apart and from 0.3m. to 0.5m. high. Three of the stones are of post type and eight are upright slabs. An additional stone, 7.5m. from the northeast side and 0.3m high, is angled towards the circle and may be quite unassociated. The depressions excavated in 1895 can not be identified.
Circle surveyed at 1:10 000 on MSD and at 1:250. (See illustration plan and photograph). (4)
Several detailed 19th century accounts of the stone circle show the number of stones has actually increased, a most unusual phenomenon, from 9 in the early part of the century, 8 in 1828, 10 in 1827 and 9 in 1859, before reaching the present total of 11 in Worth's 1895 plan. It seems at least 2 stones have been added, probably by some of the early investigators who were not always particular in recording their restorations. a small outlier 8m east of the circle might be considered natural but for the Exploration Committee's excavation of several pits 0.3-0.5m deep 'near the sacred circle', one of which contained a flint flake. These were found to be socket holes for 'large stones .. perhaps the size of the menhir' according to Tower, who, as a member of the Committee, was presumably present during the dig. The outlier and two of the pits on their plan show them to be concentric with the circle, indicating a much more impressive structure at one period, another pair being nearer the standing stone. The interior is quite flat apart from a shallow trench from the centre to the southern edge, dug sometime before 1871 by Spence Bate. (5)
Centred at SX55367464. The eleven stones of this stone circle stands on a gentle slope in close-cropped grassland. The diameter of the circle ranges from 18.5m to 20.0m; there are five post stones and six slab stones up to 0.65m in height.
The level interior has a number of slight pits and shallow linear depressions: one is the infilled 19th century trench and others denote footpaths. The outlying stone to the east of the circle and the two 0.3m deep pits survive in situ; they may represent the remains of a second, concentric, stone circle. Other partially buried stones occur in the locality of this outer ring. Merrivale Stone Circle: dimensions of the individual stones

Grid Ref H W T Status
SX5536274643 0.35 0.55 0.2 Slab
SX5536774639 0.55 0.55 0.15 Slab
SX5536774634 0.55 0.4 0.2 Post
SX5536574629 0.6 0.65 0.15 Slab
SX5536374628 0.6 0.34 0.25 Post
SX5535774626 0.5 0.5 0.15 Slab
SX5535174629 0.3 0.2 0.2 Post
SX5534874634 0.55 0.55 0.15 Slab
SX5534874638 0.35 0.2 0.3 Post
SX5535274643 0.3 0.6 0.2 Slab
SX5535674644 0.3 0.25 0.35 Post
SX5537574638 0.3 0.5 0.15 Recumbent

White Moor Stone Circle — Miscellaneous

Details of stone circle on Pastscape

(SX 63278961) Stone Circle (NR). (1)
A stone circle, 65 feet in diameter and originally consisting of 19 stones is on Whitemoorstone Down, about a mile south of Cosdon. One stone is now missing and four have been broken off. There is a distinct gap in the continuation; the stone on the east side of the gap and the largest stone in the circle are in due line north and south and point south to the White Moorstone (SX 68 NW 6) some quarter of a mile distant. (2-3)

Brisworthy Stone Circle — Miscellaneous

Details of stone circle on Pastscape

(SX 56476549) Stone Circle (NR) (1)
An 80ft diameter stone circle known as Brisworthy Circle composed of 22 stones (Plan). Prior to restoration in 1909 eighteen of these stones had fallen over. A "not very thorough" excavation yielded a small amount of charcoal and one rough flint flake. All the stones are broad, rather than pillars and in this circle is unusual (4). (2-4)
This stone circle stands on a south east facing slope at 270m OD. It comprises a slightly ovoid setting of 24 upright stones which are probably only half the original number. The survivors are placed very regularly, the largest measuring 1.4m x 0.9m x 0.7m high, the smallest 0.3m x 0.6m x 0.2m high. The mean internal diameter of the circle is 24.0m Surveyed at 1:10 000 on PFD with amendments to pre-restoration survey. (5) The circle has been re-surveyed by Prof Thom. (See illus card 2) (6) This feature is generally as described by Authority 5 though now possesses 25 in situ stones. (7)

Langstone Moor Stone Circle — Miscellaneous

Details of stone circle on Pastscape

(SX 5565 7820) Stone Circle (NR) (1)
The Langstone circle, diameter about 56 feet, was discovered in 1894 and restored. It consists of 16 stones, two of which are of fine sandstone, the remainder of ordinary moor-stone. There appears to have been an outer circle of which 3 stones remain on the west side (2). Only two stones of the outer circle remain in position, the third being broken and the pit-hole visible. These stones are described as being a fine-grained stone, and only one of the inner stones of this material. Diameter given as 67 feet (4). Visible on air photographs. (2-5)
On the flattish top of Langstone Moor at approximately 452.0m OD is the remains of a restored stone circle. It is ovoid, 21.0m by 19.0m, with irregularly placed stones of which four are erect, six fallen and the remainder reduced to stumps. They average 1.0m high and 0.5m square. The interior is devoid of detail. One erect stone of similar dimensions remains of the outer circle on the south west side, 3.0m outside the circle. The number of irregularly positioned shallow pits in the vicinity makes further identification of the outer circle indefinite. Revised at 1:10 000 on PFD and at 1:250. See ground photograph. (6)
The circle is located on the southern side of the flattish summit of Langstone Moor ridge at an altitude of 455m above OD. The site is overlooked by Great Mistor to the South and Wittor to the North and has views of Roos Tor and Staple Tor further down the ridge and the Walkham valley at Merrivale. The view to the east is slightly restricted by the rise of Cock's Hill.
Of the 16 stone of the restored circle only 11 now remain in-situ, though several of these are much shorter than they appear in Burnard's 1894 photograph, including five which can only be described as stumps. The tallest stone today stands to only 1.1m high though Burnard recorded stones of between 5 and 6 feet (1.5 - 1.8m). Fragments of the broken stones lie scattered on the ground around the erect stones. There are also five stones that are completely toppled . Of the two stones said by authority 3 to be outside the main circle, only one remains on the west side and stands to 0.7m high. Some remedial work was recently carried out by the DNPA, during which erosion hollows around four of the stones were filled. Small hollows outside the circle may be ordnance impact craters.
As planned the stones form a far from perfect circle. Although it is possible that in its original form the monument was an imperfect circle, this seems unlikely and it is perhaps more credible that the stones were re-erected incorrectly.

The Stones

1. Standing intact, 1m high. Erosion hollow recently restored.
2. Stump 0.5m high on rebuilt concrete base. Top section lying on ground in 3 pieces.
3. Stump 0.45m high. Top section lies alongside. Original height c. 1.8m.
4. Stump 0.2m high. Three small fragments on ground beside.
5. Ground level stump. Top section on ground beside, 1.2m long.
6. Fallen slab 1.6m long plus fragments.
7. Stump 0.3m high plus shattered pieces.
8. Stump 0.4m high plus shattered pieces.
9. Standing intact, 1.1m high. Erosion hollow recently restored.
10. Fallen slab 1.5m long.
11. Edge-set slab, 0.7m high. Loose.
12. Fallen slab 1.25m long.
13. Fallen slab 1.35m long.
14. Standing, 0.9m high. Erosion hollow recently repaired.
15. Fallen slab 1.85m long plus shattered pieces.
16. Standing, 0.9m high. Splintered top section. Erosion hollow recently repaired.
17. Fallen 1.25m long.

Scorhill (Stone Circle) — Miscellaneous

Details of stone circle on Pastscape

(SX 65468738) Scorhill Circle (NAT) Stone Circle (NR). (1)
Scorhill Circle, a free standing stone circle, 88 feet in diameter, consisting of 23 standing stones and 7 fallen stones, probably early Bronze Age. The tallest stone is 8 feet 2 inches above ground and the smallest is 2 feet 8 inches and were close-set, 2-3 feet apart. (2)
Although previously named 'Gidleigh Circle' (a). it is now commonly called 'Scorhill Circle'. The feature is in a generally good condition, and as described by Authority (2), but having an additional fallen stone in the NW quadrant.
Stone circle revised at 1:2500, and annotations to Hansford Worth's plan. (3)
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Hail and Welcome

Chance was born in Ratae in the year of the Rat, and grew up in the territory of the Corieltauvi.

Now living days walk west of Wale-dich (Avebury), on the border between the Atrebates, the Durotriges and the Dobunni.

Practical experience of excavation on Neolithic, Bronze-age, Roman sites.

Interested in the various tribes, how they divided their land, their agricultural calendar, common beliefs and ritual systems.

Often attends the tribal meetings held at Avebury and Stonehenge.

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