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Black Mixen (Round Barrow(s))

As well as the summit cairn, there is a further round barrow at the northwestern end of the Black Mixen summit ridge, Mynydd Ffoesidoes, at SO19096521.

Coflein description:
The monument comprises the remains of a substantial round barrow, a burial mound probably dating to the Bronze Age (c.2300 BC - 800 BC) and situated in enclosed rough moorland on the NW end of the Black Mixen ridge on Radnor Forest. The heather-covered barrow is circular on plan and measures about 24m in diameter and up to 1.3m in height. Although the W side of the monument has been disturbed and is generally lower, the base of the round barrow appears to be undisturbed. Traces of a surrounding ring ditch are visible, in places measuring up to 2m in width. The barrow is situated within boggy moorland - a Site of Special Scientific Interest - and has great archaeological and paleoenvironmental potential. The barrow possibly represents the remains of a platform cairn - the barrow displays no evidence of original 'bulk' indicating a rounded profile and is unlikely to have been extensively robbed.

Cwm Bwch, Great Rhos (Cairn(s))

Three round barrows located on the top of the curving escarpment edge either side of Cwm Bwch, on the northwestern slopes of Great Rhos.

Coflein descriptions, north-south:
Cwm Bwch I at SO17586497

One of two barrows, 11m in diameter and 0.9m high.

Cwm Bwch II at SO17576494

14m in diameter and 1.1m high, mutilated to the E.

Cwm Bwch III at SO17566414

Remains of a round barrow, situated in enclosed moorland on the edge of a prominent west-facing terrace on the summit of a ridge within Radnor Forest. The grass and heather covered barrow is circular on plan and measures about 12.5m in diameter and up to 1.2m in height.

Dod Hill East (Barrow / Cairn Cemetery)

The remains of a very substantial cairn with several smaller ones, at the bottom of the eastern slopes of Dod Hill, which is an obvious focal point.

Pastscape description:
Although severely robbed, the surviving rim of this round cairn shows it was originally about 23.0m overall diameter.

An arc of earthfast kerbstones is visible around the S side, but the entire NE quadrant has been destroyed by robbing. Standing to a maximum height of 1.3m on the W side, the original height of the cairn was probably at least double this, judging by the large rubble heaps and sheepfolds nearby.

Six metres S. of the cairn, is a compact sub-circular earth and rubble mound about 5.0m in overall diameter and about 1.0m high. It appears undisturbed and cannot be regarded as spoil from the larger mound. Possibly a small satellite cairn, but one cannot be certain on ground evidence.

Remains of a further 4 round cairns, between 3.5 metres and 5 metres in diameter and up to 0.5 metres high, can be seen to the south and east.

Cocklawburn Beach Rings (Natural Rock Feature)

A mile to the southeast was a massive cairn, which yielded finds but is now gone. From pastscape:
(centred NU 039470) A tumulus of water-worn stones, about 26 feet high and 50 feet diameter, stood about 250 yards from High Water Mark, on the very extreme limit of the cultivated land, on the left of the road from Cheswick to the beach. When opened in 1826, it was found to contain several secondary inhumations, and, at its centre, a primary burial in a cist, 5 feet x 2 feet 6 inches, together with a bronze knife-dagger, now in the B.M.

No trace of a cairn in the area.

Mire Loch (Hillfort)

Canmore description of the fort/settlement site:
This fort is situated at an elevation of some 250ft OD, and occupies the NW end of a rocky knoll which rises some 40ft above a cultivated field.

It is enclosed by a single earth-and-stone rampart which follows the contour on three sides and crosses the summit on the fourth. In the interior are several rather indefinite foundations, and apparently a circular one on the right of the entrance and another nearer the centre. There are also a number of mounds and hollows of indeterminate character outside on the slope from the SE, probably due to quarrying.

The remains at this site are those of a probable two-phase settlement overlain by a farmstead. In the first phase the settlement measured 40m by 24.5m internally; subsequently it was extended on the NW by 13m. The enclosing bank is spread to a width of about 3.3m, except on the SE, where it is considerably thicker, with traces of an external ditch. The gap on the SE is probably associated with the farmstead, and the original entrance may have been on the N. The remains of the later farmstead are situated within the wall of the settlement. The buildings appear to have been ranged around a yard which was open on the SE. The most prominent feature is a building platform measuring 13m from NW to SE by 4.2m transversely set against the SW wall of the earlier settlement.

As well as the fort there is an intervisible prehistoric settlement site to the NW at NT 9083 6863. Canmore description:
This roughly rectangular settlement, measuring about 44m by 28.5m within a wall (0.6m high and spread to a thickness of 3.7m) occupies the rounded summit of a hill due S of Pettico Wick Harbour, (at an elevation of 105m OD). The S corner of the interior has been incorporated into what is probably a secondary enclosure containing the turf-covered footings of two circular houses. Within the settlement there are footings of two houses with internal diameters of 6.2m and 7m respectively.

Brean Down (Barrow / Cairn Cemetery)

There are two distinct groups of barrows on Brean Down, located on the eastern and western summits of the ridge. Pastscape descriptions:

Eastern group
Seven mounds are contained within the eastern field system on Brean Down. One of these is a round barrow, centred at ST 29325 58814. It is most likely to be the site that Skinner, writing in the early 19th century, found Roman pottery and human bones on the surface, and recorded that the primary deposit had been removed. The barrow lies just to the south of the Roman temple (ST 25 NE 6) and appears to overlie part of the field sytem. The NW side of the barrow has been damaged by ridge and furrow cultivation. A small hollow at the SE corner of the barrow represents the remains of a small building, visible on aerial photographs taken in 1948. Four small depressions on the W and E sides of the mound and to the S of the barrow probably mark the position of ApSimon's trial trenches.

The mound centred at ST 29135 58925 may be a burial cairn. It is portrayed thus on a map of 1821. Silty clay has been dumped on the W end of the mound, obscuring its original form.

The remaining mounds are all small and are most likely to be clearance cairns or modified field banks. The mound centred at ST 2932 5881 is larger than the others, measuring 15m in diameter, has been interpreted as a round barrow or cairn which may be Bronze Age or Roman in date.

The other four mounds are centred at ST 2911 5893, ST 2913 5892, ST 2921 5889 and ST 2924 5887. They are predominantly sub-circular except for the largest mound and range in size, measuring between 3m in diameter and 7m by 10m. The largest of the mounds has been interpreted as a Bronze age burial mound. The other mounds may be clearance cairns which are possibly later in date.
Western group
Six mounds are contained within the western field system on Brean Down. Two of these are most likely to be small, Bronze Age burial cairns. The cairn at ST 28412 50920 is a low, circular, stony mound, close to a field bank. The cairn at ST 28519 59010 is a circular, turf-covered mound. Both of these cairns are shown on Colt Hoare's map of 1821 as burial cairns.

The large, flat-topped, sub-rectangular mound at ST 28487 59007 is surmounted by an OS trig. pillar. The hollow and small mound by the pillar suggest that the mound has been dug into. The field system may have incorporated an earlier cairn, or it may have been altered by the addition of a large burial cairn. The mound may have been augmented by field clearance. The present day appearance of the mound suggests that it may have been used as a beacon during the post medieval period.

The small rectangular mound on top of a field bank at ST 28647 58955 appears to be of recent construction. The mound at ST 28695 58942 is caused by the junction of two field banks, although it may have been augmented by field clearance. The sub-rectangular mound at ST 28733 58937 is part of a field bank, perhaps augmented by field clearance. A small hollow in its centre suggests that it has been dug into, and its northern end appears to have been modified by the removal of material.

Brean Down Fort (Hillfort)

Summarised description from Pastscape sources:
At the east end of Brean Down, a bank of stones, 4-8 feet high, with an outer ditch, makes an angle, ending on the steep slope on the north and destroyed by quarrying on the east.

In the part of the camp destroyed by quarrying a number of Roman gold coins of Augustus, Nero and Drusus, and two silver denarii of Vespasian, were found by quarrymen and dispersed to private collectors. A Roman cornelian ring is also recorded from the earthwork.

The principal feature of the earthwork is a bank and rock-cut ditch running north south across the ridge. At its southern end the bank turns to the east and follows a natural fault line along the top of exposed limestone outcrop.

Some mutilation of the earthwork and disturbance of the enclosed area was caused by military installations of the 1939-45 war.

A small excavation of the western bank of this feature was carried out in 1974, providing information for the following abstract:-

"Limited excavation at the SW angle of this small and now L-shaped earthwork showed the defences to consist of abutting rubble banks
revetted front and rear with massive drystone walling, with a ditch to the west. Radio carbon determinations indicate that the defences were constructed in the latter part of the Iron Age, and
provide dates for the coarse pottery of Iron Age `A' type in use on the site prior to the construction of the banks and while ditch silting was taking place. The site continued to be frequented in the Roman period."

The site was surveyed at a scale of 1:1000 by the RCHME in June 1995 as part of a landscape survey of Brean Down. The remains comprise an elongated L-shaped bank and ditch on the eastern side of Brean Down, centred at ST 29805900. Although the earthworks do not form a hillfort in the generally accepted definition of the term, the historical evidence, the scale of the western and southern ramparts, and the excavated evidence for Iron Age occupation, suggests that the term hillfort is appropriate for these earthworks.

The best preserved sections of the earthworks are the western rampart and ditch, and the western end of the southern rampart. The western rampart runs for 45m N-S and is, on average, 2m high and 2m wide. The ditch is present for some 25m on the outer side of the western rampart, south of the Military Road, and is rock-cut at its southern end. The ditch is 1.5m deep and 3.5m wide, giving a maximum width for the defences of 10m. North of the Military Road, the ditch has been disturbed by the construction of a 20th century military building.

The southern rampart utilises an outcrop of bedrock for much of its length. It is fronted by a narrow ledge 5m wide and 30m long at its western end. The rampart is breached at a point 35m east of the south-western angle; this is probably the result of erosion caused by a footpath. East of this breach, the earthwork is smaller in scale and comprises a bank, 110m long, 1.5m wide and 0.5m high. Disturbance caused by the construction of the Military Road occurs at ST 29895887, and east of this the bank changes direction and becomes less well-defined. The bank terminates at the Military Road at its eastern end, where it has been much disturbed by quarrying. There is no evidence for its extension east of the Military Road.

On the northern side of the earthwork, the ground falls away very sharply to the cliffs on the edge of Brean Down; this area has been disturbed by the construction of 20th century military buildings and no defensive remains are visible. None are shown on a 19th century map of Brean Down, which depicts the earthwork as very similar to its present day appearance.

Wychbury Hill (Hillfort)

Who put Bella in the Wych Elm?

Those visiting who pass the otherwise anonymous obelisk next to the fort might notice the old graffiti "Who put Bella in the Witch Elm?" painted on the base.

Rather macabrely, it relates to the discovery by four children in 1943 of the skeletonised remains of a women placed inside a tree in nearby Hagley Wood (not the hillfort, thankfully). The murder remains unsolved.

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Who_put_Bella_in_the_Wych_Elm%3F

West Hill (Quantock Hills) (Cairn(s))

Two large cairns on West Hill and Fire Beacon. Pastscape descriptions:
Fire Beacon cairn (ST 1491 3697)

A Bronze Age cairn located on the summit of Fire Beacon, a south west facing hill in the western region of the Quantock Hills. The cairn is of irregular shape with a spread mound, approximately 2 metres above ground level at its highest point and 26 metres in diameter. The surface of the mound has been disturbed which may indicate that a partial excavation has been carried out, probably in antiquity. Scheduled.

West Hill cairn (ST 15433719)

A very large platform cairn lies on the summit of West Hill at ST 1542 3717. The cairn comprises a rather disturbed stony mound, 28m in diameter and 1.6m high. Stone has been taken from the mound, probably to build the nearby enclosure bank. Despite this disturbance, the vestiges of a bank around the north part of the mound, and a central mound, 10m NS x 12m EW x 1m high, may be original features, suggesting that the cairn may have been an embanked platform cairn with a central mound.

Wilmot's Pool (Round Barrow(s))

There are two cairns at Wilmot's Pool. Pastscape descriptions:
Western barrow (ST 15303813)

A large Bronze Age barrow lies on the southeast side of Wilmot's Pool at ST 15310 38135. The barrow comprises a circular mound 21m in diameter. The top of the mound has a circular depression in it, 10m NS x 8m EW x 1.5m deep. This may be the result of antiquarian excavations or it may be the site of a beacon fire. The semi-circular bank on the south edge of the mound is formed of material from this hollow. A small satellite cairn, 5m NS x 4m EW x 0.6m high lies on the southeast side of the barrow and compares to a similar feature on the southeast side of the barrow on Beacon Hill.

Wilmot's Pool is a pond, teardrop-shaped, 45m x 30m and some 1.5m deep. It still holds water in the winter, although the north side has been breached. The pond is of considerable antiquity: it appears on a map of 1609 (Somerset Record Office 1609 A plot of Quantock belonging to the right honourable the earle of Northumberland DD/SAS C/923). Narrow ridge and furrow ploughing has slighted its west and southwest sides. The pond was probably dug in the medieval period for watering stock on the commons.

Eastern cairn (ST 15483813)

A large embanked platform cairn lies some 200m to the east of Wilmot's Pool at ST 1548 3813. The cairn comprises a circular mound, 17m in diameter and 1.1m high. The bank which runs around the perimeter of the mound is 0.8m wide and 0.8m high. A mound 3.4m in diameter and 0.8m high is placed to the northwest of centre on top of the mound.

Thorncombe Barrow (Round Barrow(s))

As well as the main Thorncombe Barrow, there is a group of three further barrows on the summit of Thorncombe Hill to the southeast, centred on ST131391.

These are very low and (at the time of writing) heavily overgrown with heather.

Pastscape descriptions:
Three Bronze Age burial cairns lie on the summit of Thorncombe Hill. The largest of these three cairns lies at ST 13199 39105. This is a low, stony mound with a flat top, 8.5m in diameter and 0.5m high. The top of the mound has a central depression, 1.6m x 1.4m x 0.5m deep. The cairn has been cut through by a track which has exposed much of the west side of the cairn. Some 30m to the northwest, at ST 13175 39123, is a second cairn. This is a circular mound, 4.4m in diameter and 0.7m high, with a small central depression. A third cairn lies some 100m to the north at ST 13150 39224. This is a circular stony mound, 5m high and 0.7m high. The west edge of the cairn has been clipped by a track.

Cwm Bwchel, Black Mountains (Round Cairn)

Slightly longer description of the cairn and cist from GGAT, hinting that there may be a deliberately incised V in one of the cist slabs:
The cairn described by OS workers (1975 & 1979) is a partially destroyed round barrow cist situated in open heathland. The mound is circular in form, the N area is almost level whilst the SE area is more substantial in height. It would appear that the N-NW-W of the mound has been robbed away leaving a slight curved earthwork around the cairn's former boundary. To the central S area of the cairn is an impressive cist (diameter; 2m x 1.2m x height; 0.65m) of two long parallel flagstone slabs aligned NE-SW, with smaller slabs (0.4m) defining each open end. There is a linear incision mark (0.16m long) on the inside of the S cist slab that does not appear natural; the incision is 'V' shaped and may have been caused by prehistoric stone rubbing. To the S of the cist is the only area of exposed boulders.
Dimensions: diameter 15.5m; height 1.4m (max)

Conquer Downs (Cairn(s))

The fine kerbed cairn at SW 4751 3616 was sold by the bassist of Van Der Graf Generator in 2003. From the Cornwall & Scilly HER:

The OS describe this barrow as a flat topped mound average height 1.1m composed of small stones held in position by a retaining wall of large slabs set on edge. The retaining wall is fully exposed on the north side but only the tops of the stones are visible on the south part. In three places, stones of an inner ring are visible. The 'piggery' referred to by Henderson is a rectangular hollow in the south east quadrant with two stones forming an entrance. Although these stones bear drill marks their position indicates that they might have formed part of the inner ring.
The barrow was put on the market in the summer of 2003; the owner established a web-site for the sale, which included moody photographs, information gleaned from the SMR and quotes from Steve Hartgroves. There was much media interest in the sale, which was reported initially in the property columns of a Sunday newspaper, and subsequently in several other papers. Despite much interest, the barrow did not sell; it was then put up for auction but failed to reach the reserve. The barrow was eventually sold privately. The new owner hopes to fund an excavation of the site.

Caradon Hill (southern group) (Barrow / Cairn Cemetery)

Scattered group of 9 Bronze Age round cairns located on the southern slopes of Caradon Hill.

Details of the cairns from the National Heritage List For England, generally northeast to southwest:

Round cairn 310m west of Heather House (SX 27260 70284)
The cairn survives with a low sub-circular mound measuring up to 16.5m north west-south east by 14.1m north east-south west, the mound slightly truncated along its north east edge by a ditch accompanying a substantial post-medieval wall which passes 1m beyond the cairn's visible edge, following the line of a medieval manorial and parish boundary. The cairn's mound has a low, shallow-domed profile, up to 0.9m high, but relatively recent small-scale quarrying for wall stone has produced an uneven surface with several rounded hollows running in from the edges of the mound.

Round cairn with peripheral berm 402m SSW of Caradon Hill summit (SX 27115 70385)
The cairn survives as a circular mound, 21m in diameter and up to 2m high, of heaped small stones; around the SW and W sectors a distinct ledge, or berm, 0.5m wide, is visible in the mound's periphery at a height of 0.3m. Some stone extraction has occurred in the relatively recent past, resulting in a lowering of the cairn's interior in the E and S sectors but not reaching the base of the cairn, and in its N half the cairn survives undisturbed to full height as a consolidated turf-covered mound.

Round cairn 472m SSW of Caradon Hill summit (SX 27208 70282)
The cairn survives as a well-preserved circular turf-covered mound, 11.5m in diameter and 1m high, composed of heaped small to medium-sized stones. The mound rises to a flattened upper surface 7m in diameter and has survived essentially intact.

Round cairn 480m SSW of Caradon Hill summit (SX 27085 70314)
The cairn survives as a circular mound, largely turf-covered, 18.5m in diameter and up to 2.25m high, of heaped small to medium-sized stones, with occasional larger stones up to 1m long. Some relatively recent stone- quarrying is evident as limited depressions up to 1m deep in the N half of the cairn's central area.

Round cairn 527m SSW of Caradon Hill summit (SX 26976 70323)
The cairn survives as a circular mound, largely turf-covered, 11m in diameter and up to 1.75m high, of heaped small to medium sized stones. Some stone extraction has occurred in the relatively recent past, removing stones from the central 2-3m diameter area and the SSE side of the cairn, but leaving the remainder of the cairn's mound intact and well-consolidated.

Round cairn 557m SSW of Caradon Hill summit (SX 26988 70283)
The cairn survives as a circular mound, 16.5m in diameter and up to 1.5m high, of heaped small to medium sized stones. Some stone extraction has occurred in the relatively recent past, removing stones from the central area and hollowing it to a maximum depth of c.0.75m, but leaving the remainder of the cairn's mound intact and well-consolidated.

Tor cairn with adjacent sub-rectangular hut 650m SSW of Caradon Hill summit (SX 26966 70186)
The monument includes an ovoid tor cairn with a peripheral bank and kerb, and a later sub-rectangular hut adjoining the cairn's S edge.

The tor cairn survives as a low ovoid bank, measuring 34m NE-SW by 27m NW-SE externally, 2-3m wide and up to 0.5m high, composed of heaped small to medium sized stones. The bank's inner edge is defined by a row of edge- and end-set boulders and slabs up to 1m high forming a distinct kerb around the N, E and S sides. Within the kerb is an almost level surface covering a thin platform, of compacted and largely turf-covered small to medium stones. The cairn's platform surrounds a natural granite outcrop, 22m long and rising to 2.5m above the neighbouring land on the crest of the spur, forming a clear natural spine along the cairn's long axis. The outcrop comprises weathered slabs, tilted to the SE with a scarp along its NW edge, and widens from 3m at the NE end to 11m at the SW. The cairn platform is represented on the outcrop's upper face by a discontinuous thin layer of compacted small stones. The S edge of the cairn's bank and platform has been modified by the insertion of a sub-rectangular hut of a form typical of early medieval stock herders' huts on Bodmin Moor. Externally the hut measures 6m N-S by 5m E-W, with rubble walls 1.5m thick and 0.5m high, probably of stone robbed from the cairn. No certain entrance is visible.

Round cairn 740m SSW of Caradon Hill summit (SX 26833 70162)
The monument comprises a round cairn on and around a natural rock outcrop.

The cairn survives as circular mound, 14m diameter and up to 1.75m high, composed of small to medium-sized stones, up to c.0.5m long, heaped upon a small natural flat rock outcrop, extending beyond its edge on the N and E sides, but defined by a sheer drop along the outcrop's S and W sides. The outcrop clearly forms the bulk of the cairn's volume, but the heaped stone is well-consolidated and largely turf-covered, with no evidence for any previous disturbance.

Round cairn and shelters 812m SSW of Caradon Hill summit (SX 26852 70058)
The monument comprises a large circular funerary cairn with two small shelters scooped into one side, at the SW end of a linear cairn group.

The cairn survives as a large circular mound, 23m in diameter and up to 2m high, of heaped stones varying in size from small pebbles to small boulders up to 1m across. Some stone extraction has occurred in the relatively recent past, removing stone from the NNW side of the cairn, extending to the mound's centre, but leaving the remainder of the cairn's mound intact. The surface beneath the area from which stone has been removed retains well-consolidated stone of the cairn mound, 0.4m above the external ground level, and is largely turf-covered. In the E and SE sides of the cairn are two small scoops in the stone rubble content of the mound, each 3m in diameter and 0.75m deep, separated by a very coarsely-built drystone wall. Such structures are typical of short-term shelters for medieval and post-medieval workers on the moor.

Caradon Hill (northern group) (Barrow / Cairn Cemetery)

Group of 10 Bronze Age round cairns located across Caradon Hill's summit dome on an overall alignment south west from the summit.

Details of the cairns from the National Heritage List For England, north to south:

Banked cairn 125m NNE of Caradon Hill summit (SX 27331 70870)
The monument comprises a large circular embanked funerary cairn, part of a linear cairn group near the summit of Caradon Hill on SE Bodmin Moor. The cairn survives as a circular bank of small stones, 19m in external diameter, 2-3m wide and 0.5m high, encircling a central mound, 12m in diameter and up to 1.5m high, composed of medium to large stones. Around the S and SW sectors of the central mound's edge are a row of end-set, inward-sloping, large slabs surviving from a retaining kerb.

The surface of the central mound shows a number of hollows from stone-robbers, whose spoil has been dumped largely over the N and NE sectors of the cairn, filling the space between the mound and outer bank in that area. The same activities are responsible for a pit in the NE part of the mound, exposing a large natural boulder in its base; this pit is the only disturbance to reach a significant depth into the body of the cairn, and is off-centre and restricted in extent; consequently it is considered that any primary funerary deposits at the centre of this monument, and secondary deposits made in most other areas, will survive intact, together with the old land surface on which the monument was constructed.


Embanked platform cairn 47m NW of Caradon Hill summit (SX 27280 70791)
The monument comprises a large circular platform cairn with a peripheral bank, part of a linear cairn group near the summit of Caradon Hill on SE Bodmin Moor. The cairn survives as a large, circular, flat-topped platform of heaped small stones, 30m diameter and 0.4m high. The bank on the platform periphery starts 3m from platform edge, leaving a clear peripheral berm; the bank is also composed of heaped small stones and survives 2m wide and generally 0.5m above the platform level, rising to 1m high in the NW sector; it is visible around the entire periphery except the disturbed S sector. The cairn interior bears no trace of any internal mound, but has a number of hollows and hummocks from limited stone-robbing from the cairn. One such hollow exposes part of a recumbent slab, appearing 1m square, at the cairn's centre. The entry for these activities has been from the S and SE sector, where the peripheral bank and platform edge have been reduced.


Ring cairn 77m E of Caradon Hill summit (SX 27377 70759)
The monument comprises a large, circular, funerary ring cairn, part of a linear cairn group near the summit of Caradon Hill on SE Bodmin Moor. The cairn survives as a large circular ring, 24m external diameter, 4-5m wide and up to 1m high, comprising heaped small stones with occasional larger boulders, an arrangement typical of the cairn type termed a ring cairn. Three of the larger boulders remain as upright slabs within the cairn's N sector, forming the remains of a stone kerb within the body of the cairn. The interior of the ring cairn is almost stone-free, with no evidence for previous disturbance, and conforms in both level and slope with the external ground surface.


Round cairn 15m SSE of Caradon Hill summit (SX 27303 70733)
The cairn survives as a low circular mound, 15m diameter and up to 0.4m high, composed of heaped small stones. The cairn has been subject to some stone removal in the relatively recent past, modifying its original form by hollowing the central area within an undisturbed, turf-covered 2.5m wide periphery but leaving intact a consolidated stone cover overall. As a result of this stone cover, it is considered that sub-surface funerary deposits and the old land surface beneath this cairn will have survived undisturbed. A small stone-heap 4m diameter and 1m high on the SSW periphery of the cairn is clearly a mound of waste from the stone-robbing and not an original feature of the Prehistoric cairn.


Round cairn 82m SW of Caradon Hill summit (SX 27216 70717)
The cairn survives as a circular turf-covered mound, 26m diameter and up to 1m high, comprising heaped small stones with occasional larger boulders visible; the N and W perimeters of the cairn are particularly well-defined. In the interior, some relatively recent disturbance for stone-robbing is evident as a shallow trench, 3m wide, running in from the SSW almost to the N edge, together with several linear mounds and hollows parallel to it on each side. This disturbance penetrates only to a limited depth within the cairn and it is considered that sub-surface funerary deposits and extensive areas of the old land surface will have survived intact beneath it.


Platform cairn 110m SW of Caradon Hill summit (SX 27215 70682)
The cairn has a central turf-covered mound, 13m diameter and 2m high, composed of small to medium-sized stone. The mound has a hollowed upper surface, 5m in diameter and 0.6m deep. The mound drops to the level of the platform, 0.5m higher than the external ground level. On the periphery of the platform is the outer bank, 22m in external diameter, 2-3m wide and 1.5m high, leaving a gap 1.5-2m wide to the central mound. No trace of the platform projects beyond the bank. The bank has some gaps in its S sector due to recent stone robbing, but this cairn shows no evidence of any major disturbance.


Banked cairn 175m SW of Caradon Hill summit (SX 27170 70633)
The cairn survives with an irregular central mound, c.10m in diameter and up to 1m high, composed of small to medium stones, with a number of smaller heaps and hollows in its surface deriving from the relatively recent activities of stone-robbers which have also spread the mound towards the outer bank in the S half. In the less disturbed N and NW sectors a clear gap, 4m wide and at the same level as the external ground surface, is observable between the central mound and an encircling bank, 22m in external diameter, 2-2.5m wide and up to 0.4m high. This bank is also composed of heaped small stones.


Round cairn 230m SW of Caradon Hill summit (SX 27119 70608)
The cairn survives as a circular mound, 18m diameter and up to 0.75m high, composed of heaped small and medium sized stones visible in breaks in the turf cover. The surface of the cairn shows some slight hollows from relatively recent stone-robbing but, with one exception, these are both of limited extent and depth. This exception is a pit, 4m long by 2m wide, dug 1m deep into the SW edge of the cairn to expose a large ground-set boulder from which one end was subsequently split away by drilling. Beyond that peripheral pit, the body of the cairn remains substantially intact, as will any funerary deposits associated with it.


Round cairn 520m north west of Heather House (SX 27114 70566)
The cairn survives with a low rounded mound up to 18.8m in diameter and to 1m high. Parts of the mound's original surface show a formerly shallow-domed, almost flattened, profile however its present visible form has been affected by post-medieval quarrying for wall stone. That has lowered an area about 6m across at the centre of the mound though it remains above the ground level surrounding the cairn, with discarded rubble and soil heaped unevenly onto intact areas of the cairn's periphery; several hollows pass across that periphery to give access to the central quarried area.


Platform cairn 550m north west of Heather House (SX 27073 70541)
The cairn survives with a low rounded mound up to 18.25m in diameter and up to 0.6m high. The mound rises over its peripheral 1m-1.5m to a flattened upper platform, a profile slightly modified in some areas by post-medieval rubble extraction which has produced several shallow hollows running onto the cairn from the edges. Occasional small stones from the cairn's rubble fabric are exposed in the turf, but slightly north east of centre, a group of larger slabs, some edge-set and up to 0.8m long, break through the surface turf and are considered to derive from a slab-built funerary structure called a cist.

Further relatively recent stone extraction occurs on the cairn's southern edge, which has been dug away to expose a large natural boulder; the west end of the boulder was split away using the plug-and-feather technique characteristic of 19th century and later stone-splitting. The break was clearly unsuccessful with the split end left where it fell, but one of the holes intended to guide the next break still retains its broken iron plug and two feathers jammed in place.

Graig-ddu, Black Mountains (Round Cairn)

CPAT description with excavation details:
An excavated round barrow cist which is circular in form with quite steeply sloping sides and a depressed interior. The mound's perimeter is well defined although no kerbstones or ditch was visible. The sides of the mound are under turf, whilst the levelled interior exposes stone. A large sandstone slab, aligned E-W, dominates the central S area of the cairn's interior. This is presumably the remains of the cist excavated by Jones (1981); the upper most edge of this slab is all that is now exposed.

Dimensions: diameter 15.2m; height 1.2m-1.4m
(1981) A cairn 15.5m diameter, c.1.5m high with a large cist at the centre was examined. Small particles of bone and a few potshereds were found in soil in the cist, and further sherds, the rim of a large vessel with incised decoration and a barbed and tanged arrowhead were found on the cairn floor. There was no evidence of a kerb.

(1981) EXCAVATION: The removal of the part-fill of loose boulders together with C20th rubbish revealed an irregular layer of dark brown soil slopping down towards the E end. Progressive trowelling revealed no stratification, the soil being of a disturbed nature and containing burned bracken and some broken glass similar to that associated with the boulder deposits. However, there was a firmer area of soil in the angle between the easternmost orthostat and the boulder clay on which the cist had been constructed. In this undisturbed material the first and largest pottery sherd, a piece of the rim of a large, decorated, vessel was discovered. Scattered in a random manner and near the first find were other small fragments of pottery together with several fragments of bone. A tanged and barbed arrow head and other small flint flakes and artifacts also appeared in a scatter across this area.

The Cist had been constructed from sandstone slabs. The S orthostat measured 1.86m in length, 1.2m deep and was 0.075m in thickness, being set into the ground so that its upper edge was almost exactly horizontal. The N slab was 1.56m, 0.87m deep and 0.075m thick. Both these main orthostats were orientated generally E-W. Slots had been cut into the original boulder clay surface and the orthostats were held upright with small stones and earth packing. The smaller E and W slabs were not so deep set and were given additional support by small stones placed within the cist. The N orthostat had cracked under lateral pressure while that at the W end was incomplete and badly damaged. A matching portion of this slab was found lying within the cist.

All the indications were of a robbed burial, impression futher strengthened by finds made outside the cist itself and at its E end. At this point an area of the cairn boulders were cleared so that any pattern of construction could be investigated. Although the cairn proved to have been made of randomly placed boulders at this point, on the original ground surface and in close proximity to one another, were five small sherds of pottery. The loose nature of the cairn boulders would have allowed such small fragments of pottery to have percolated downwards had they been placed on the edge of the cist by the original robbers.

Cradley Camp (Enclosure)

From Pastscape:

A late Iron Age sub-rectangular enclosure, previously thought to be a Roman Marching Camp was seen centred at SO 7140 4788 and mapped from aerial photographs. The site was excavated in autumn/winter 2000 and found to be a late Iron Age enclosure. The aerial photographs show the enclosure being defined by a single ditch, with straight sides and curved corners and measuring approximately 64m x 83m. In one corner are the faint traces of a curved enclosure or division with possible pits.

Penycloddiau (Hillfort)

Early discovery from this year's Penycloddiau dig, courtesy of Dr Rachel Pope:

"A bit of new info. from Penycloddiau is that as early as the Early Iron Age, they’re using clay as a bonding material in construction, and also lime for weatherproofing. Something we didn’t know, we’d assumed all that was Roman invention."

Amesbury Bowl Barrow (Round Barrow(s))

A little to the northwest there is a better preserved bowl barrow, Amesbury 40 (SU 13027 42384). It's situated on a crest just to the south of the Avenue, about midway between New King Barrows and Stonehenge.

Colt Hoare excavated in the 19th century and found "a primary inhumation, a 'drinking cup' and a bone pin".

Overton Down (Round Barrow(s))

West Overton 9 is a further round barrow at SU 12601 71026, situated immediately to the east of the Ridgeway, in a triangular enclosure north of the Herepath.

Pastscape description:
Bronze Age bell or disc barrow West Overton 9 on Overton Down excavated by Merewether in 1849, who found a depression and a small sarsen at the centre. Middle and Late Bronze Age pottery was subsequently recovered from the mound by O. Meyrick. Excavations in 1960 located a primary cremation in pottery vessel, while some Roman pottery was recovered from the ditch. The barrow is still extant as an earthwork, and the cropmark of an external ring ditch has been seen on air photographs.
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