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Calden II


<b>Calden II</b>Posted by NucleusImage © Uwe Häberle 11/2019
Latitude:51° 23' 51.9" N
Longitude:   9° 22' 56.6" E

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Calden II lies immediately south of the Caldener Erdwerk, about 100 meters outside the double ditch. The grave was cut in 1969 when laying a water pipe, but interpreted as a ruined burial mound and not further investigated. Therefore, the grave was excavated only in the context of the excavations at the Caldener Erdwerk in 1990 - 1992.

The gallery grave is oriented southwest-northeast, with access to the northeast. The outer length is 11.9 m, the maximum width 3.8 m and consisted of 18 wall stones (eight pairs of supporting stones and one endstone each). The height of the chamber was about 1.4 m in the access area and 1.05 m in the back. As with Calden I and Züschen I, the endstone in the entrance area was a probably a soul hole. The number of capstones can only be estimated, it is believed that there were seven. The gaps between the wall stones were filled with dry masonry.

The easiest way to get to the tomb is to park either at the Calden Waldschwimmbad (forest swimming pool) or at the Lindenrondell at the end of the Lindenallee. From here, take the forest road to the west. At an intersection (on your right is a field), continue straight ahead on the main path that leads northwest now. After approx. 300 m you exit the forest and continue on the path along the edge of the forest (left). After 150 m, the trail turns west again and after another 625 m you reach another crossroads. Here you take the path to the right and after 90 m you reach the tomb, which is on the left of the path. The Caldener Erdwerk is just 100 meters further north along the same track.

Visited November 2019
Nucleus Posted by Nucleus
5th November 2019ce

taken from the on-site information board Eco Pfad Archäologie Calden:

In addition to the Caldener earthwork, two so-called gallery graves (also passage graves or stone chamber graves) were discovered in Calden and archaeologically examined.

Tomb I is located in close proximity to the outskirts and was investigated in 1948.
Tomb II is located about 100 meters south of the earthworks along the wayside towards the forest. It was fully investigated in 1990 - 92.

Tomb I was built in the 34th century BC and used for 200 years as a place of burial.
Tomb II followed in the 32th century BC in the same construction with an occupancy until the 29th century BC.

Both tombs consist of paired wall stones, an endstone and a - presumed - soul hole stone in the entrance area. Capstones were also used as coverings that lay on the wall stones. They are made of quartzite and come from the immediate area. The interstices in the walls were sealed in drywall technique. The tombs were probably covered with a mound. The dimensions of the graves can be reconstructed at 12.60 m (grave I) or 11.70 m; the interior was about 2 meters wide. The ceiling height in the entrance area was approximately 1.40 m. Due to the rising ground of the grave, it was only possible to crawl in the back of the burial chamber.

Gallery graves were the burial place of a whole community. Also in the Calden graves were numerous skeletons and their remains. The original number of those buried here is extrapolated to 100-200 (tomb I) or over 200.

Examination of the bones revealed that infants as well as adults of all ages were buried here. The bone features indicate a hard-working peasant society with an average life expectancy of 30 to 40 years.

The survivors pushed the dead through the "soul hole", a circular, knocked out of the stone opening in the tomb entrance. Inside the tomb, they placed their heads in the direction of the entrance. The dead person did not receive any burial except for his personal belongings, such as a chain of animal teeth or a blade of flint stone. Food and drink offerings were deposited by the survivors in the entrance area outside the burial chamber. Broken drums of clay are mute witnesses of a death suit.
Nucleus Posted by Nucleus
4th November 2019ce


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Das Galeriegrab Calden II @ Journal of Neolithic Archaeology

Completely excavated between 1990 and 1992, the Calden II gallery grave offers, despite being largely damaged, detailed information on its construction principles. Foundation trenches for the sidestones and the grave floor had been dug into the limestone close to the surface. Architecture and ritual correspond to grave I 1 km distant, but finds and radiocarbon dating suggest a close connection with the re-use (phase B) of the nearby enclosure (c. 3200 - 3000 BC). Traces of cremations between the bones of the regular burials indicate the existence of different funeral rites. The "de-construction" of the grave in the course of ritual activities is well illustrated by the removal of a sidestone and the deposition of a sheep in the Middle Bronze Age.
Nucleus Posted by Nucleus
5th November 2019ce

Galeriegrab Calden II @ Eco Pfad Archäologie Calden

more information on Calden II on the web site Eco Pfad Archäologie Calden (in German only)
Nucleus Posted by Nucleus
4th November 2019ce