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Carn Beg (Stone Circle)

From archaeology.ie

Class: Stone circle + Embanked enclosure

Townland: CARN BEG

Scheduled for inclusion in the next revision of the RMP: Yes

Description: Situated on a slight SW-facing slope. Wright (1758, vol. 3, 9-10, pl. 3) records and illustrates the remains of two concentric stone circles enclosed by an earthen bank with an external fosse. Outside this earthwork is a further stone circle enclosing all the other monuments. All the features were open to the E in the eighteenth century, probably because they were damaged by an avenue leading to Carn House, which is marked on the 1835 edition of the OS 6-inch map, and which now leads to the clubhouse of a golf course. There was an entrance, undoubtedly original, in the earthen bank at W, but both internal stone circles may have had an entrance at NW. Morris records (1907, 1, 4, 61) that the monument was completely removed at that time, but he probably sought it in Ballynahattin townland.
However, a text analysis revealed that Wright placed the monument ‘on the Planes (sic) of Ballynahaitinne', not in that townland as such (Buckley 1988, 53-4). The site is now recognised as the cropmark of a complex enclosure identified from an aerial photograph (CUCAP: BGL, 40) in the adjacent townland of Carn Beg. The cropmark is of a large enclosure (diam. c. 110m) defined by the negative mark of what is probably a wide earthen bank and traces of a fosse feature. In the interior are the negative cropmarks of two concentric gapped features (ext. diam. c. 50m int. diam. c. 30m), undoubtedly the stone circles which are S of the centre of the embanked enclosure. Archaeological testing (96E0321) immediately outside the embanked enclosure to the S failed to produce any related material (Murphy 1996).

Compiled by: Michael Moore

Date of upload: 18 December 2017

References:

1. Buckley, V.M. 1988 'Ireland's Stonehenge' - a lost antiquarian monument rediscovered. Archaeology Ireland 2 (2), 53-4.
2. CUCAP - Cambridge University Collection of Aerial Photographs. Unit for Landscape Modelling, Department of Geography, University of Cambridge.
3. Morris, H. 1905-07 Louthiana: ancient and modern. Mount Bagenal in Cooley. County Louth Archaeological and Historical Society Journal, vol. 1, 2, 17-22; 3, 38-45; 4, 57-61.
4. Murphy, D. 1997 Carnbeg, Dundalk: Enclosure and possible henge. In I. Bennett (ed.) Excavations 1996; summary accounts of archaeological excavations in Ireland. 79, No. 281. Bray, Wordwell
5. Wright, T. 1758 Louthiana: or an introduction to the antiquities of Ireland. London. Thomas Payne.

Union (Passage Grave)

From archaeology.ie

Class: Megalithic tomb - passage tomb

Townland: UNION

Scheduled for inclusion in the next revision of the RMP: Yes

Description: Sited alongside a trackway in extensive woodland in a gap in the Ox Mountains 0.7km NW of Ballygawley Lough. There are a number of mature deciduous trees on the site and the stumps of others. To N and W the ground drops quite sharply to a stream that flows NW-SE. Trees inhibit the outlook from the site but Maeve's cairn on Knocknarea is visible to the NNW. A ring of boulders (19.5m N-S, 17.5m E-W) encompasses a slight platform. There are a number of gaps in the ring of boulders but the indications are that they were contiguously placed. Among the numerous gaps are two that may be original features, one at the SE (Wth 1.3m) and another at the NW (Wth 1.1m). A number of prostrate boulders outside the perimeter may be displaced. Some of the boulders encircling the platform are quite sizeable (the largest is 0.95m x 0.85m x 1.15m high) but others are noticeably smaller. The tops of at least three stones are visible about 3m inside the perimeter at the W. The status of these is quite unclear but their presence suggests that there may have been an inner ring of stones. Somewhat to the W of the centre of the enclosed area four stones lie prostrate. The larger two are about 1.6m and 1.4m in maximum dimensions. These may represent some form of internal feature. The nature of the site is somewhat uncertain but it may be a Carrowmore-type passage tomb. It is indicated as a small oval field on the 1913 OS 6-inch map. Some 100m to the W there is another possible passage tomb (SL020-275----).

The above description is derived from the published 'Archaeological Inventory of County Sligo' compiled by Ursula Egan, Elizabeth Byrne, Mary Sleeman with Sheila Ronan and Connie Murphy (Dublin Stationery Office, 2005).

Date of upload: 18 January 2008

Magheracar (Passage Grave)

Culled from www.archaeology.ie

1986 Excavation
The monument, an undifferentiated passage tomb in a semi-circular kerbed mound, is at the edge of a sea-cliff, 5m high. The kerbed mound, 20m in diameter E-W, was assuredly originally circular, its northern half now lost to the sea. The tomb, facing SF, is 4.5m long and scarcely more than 1m wide, and stands 2.5m inside the eastern edge of the kerb. Prior to excavation, its N side and back survived intact, but only two stones (one broken) of its S side.

Within the tomb, 0.5m from the front, a sill-stone was visible. Because of its proximity to the cliff edge, about 0.2m at one point, the tomb is under threat and so an excavation, at the request of, and funded by, the National Monuments Branch of the Office of Public Works, was undertaken at the site over a five week period during September and October 1986.

The excavation was largely confined to an area 4m wide extending eastwards from the back of the chamber to and beyond the kerb. The grass-grown mound, which extends for some 5m outside the kerb, is made up of earth and stones, some quite sizeable.

A large kerbstone directly in line with the tomb is positioned slightly inside the circumference described by its fellows, and at either side, as if to highlight it, are two smaller stones. The kerbstones are rounded or oval in shape, the latter type set with a long side on the ground, and, where necessary to prevent toppling, supported by small rounded beach stones. Almost the entire tomb area was excavated, revealing, in addition to the sill-stone visible before excavation, two others between it and the back of the tomb, while across the front of the tomb two stones set side by side formed a double sill. The sills divide the tomb into four compartments, from the front approximately 0.5m, 1m, 1m and 1.8m in length. A large stone with smaller stones alongside served as a floor covering in the second compartment from the front. Between the kerb and the front of the tomb, stones had been laid flat on the ground to form what appears to be a pavement. A considerable quantity of fragmented bones, some pieces with charcoal attached, was found in the tomb. The bones were dispersed throughout the earthen fill and extended under the bases of the sills and in the case of the two inner compartments to the level of the uneven underlying rock. Objects found include a small number of flint scrapers, some pieces of chert, some small sherds of prehistoric pottery, three fragments of a single stone bead found close together, a broken length of bone bearing concentric semicircular scores, a possible decorated pin, and a miniature stone axe-head, 5cm long.

Eamon Cody, Ordnance Survey, Dublin

1987 Excavation
A second and final season's excavation was undertaken at this site over a six-week period during September-October 1987. The work was carried out at the request of the National Monuments Branch of the O.P.W. who also funded it. The monument is an undifferentiated passage tomb standing towards the eastern side of a kerbed cairn sited on a sea-cliff. The cairn measures 20m east-west but only 10m north-south as its northern half has been lost to the sea. Three cuttings were made in the cairn and, in addition, excavation of the tomb area (the focus of the 1986 season's work see Excavations 1987) was completed. A cutting, 19m long, was made from the back of the tomb to the west along the cliff edge and was continued for 8m beyond the kerb. The other two cuttings, parallel to each other and 4m apart, both 2m wide, ran approximately north-south. The more westerly of these was 10m long and extended inwards for 4m and outwards for 6m from the kerb, while the other, 12m long, extended inwards for 4m and outwards for 7m. Both of these cuttings crossed a grass-grown trackway that runs east-west just outside the kerb at the south side of the cairn. This trackway had been formed by a levelling of the extra-revetment material. At the west and south sides of the cairn two kerb-stones and parts of two others were exposed. These form part of a contiguously laid setting of large blocks of local stone.
The cairn body, under a sod cover some 0.15m thick, is of stones and intermixed loose brown earth to a depth of some 0.5m. The stones in its upper 0. lm are small and do not exceed Olin in maximum dimension while below them there are large slabs as much as 1J.8m across and 0.2m thick along with occasional water-rolled boulders. Under the cairn there is a compact layer, on average 50mm thick, of sticky earth, brown to blue-grey in colour, with small stones. This layer contained flecks of charcoal and occasional fire-reddened stones, reflecting pre-cairn activity. Finds made were confined to this layer and consist largely of waste flakes of flint and other stone. One of the few recognisable types is a leaf-shaped flint arrowhead, 30mm long.
Eamon Cody, Ordnance Survey, Dublin

Excavation licence number 00E0544
The two proposed houses were located to the west of Bundoran, in the townland of Magheracar, Co. Donegal. Both sites are close to an existing dwelling. The first was within the walled paddock to the west of an old house, and the second was a replacement to existing outbuildings to the north of the older structure. Owing to the presence of four significant archaeological sites in the vicinity, a passage tomb, a wedge tomb and the sites of two standing stones, the surrounding ground has been scheduled by Dúchas The Heritage Service.
The testing of the two proposed sites uncovered nothing of archaeological significance. Indeed, it proved that previous groundworks in the paddock field and scarping in the yard to the north of the existing house had removed all archaeology in these specific areas. In the paddock, the over-deepened soils at the southern end of the field allowed for the insertion of a closed sewerage system without the need to disturb subsoil. Other services were likewise brought to site without the requirement for any subsoil disturbance.
The second house, located in the yard to the rear of the existing cottage, was to be found on the footprint of existing outbuildings, the floor levels of which are lower than the severely scarped exterior ground. Sewerage will be via a pipe to an existing outflow, the route for which has been tested and found to be clear of all archaeological deposits. All other services will either use this cleared line or be above ground from the existing cottage.
The visual impact of the two houses on the nearby megaliths will be minimal, since both houses have been designed on a small scale, using traditional materials, and will ultimately form part of an existing cluster of traditional buildings. (Excavations Bulletin 2000)
Eoin Halpin, ADS Ltd, Unit 48, Westlink Enterprise Centre, 30-50 Distillery Street, Belfast BT12 5BJ.

Excavation licence number 00E0895
The proposed house is located to the west of Bundoran, in the townland of Magheracar, with existing dwellings to the south, west and north and access to a new development running along the east side. Owing to the presence of four archaeological sites in the vicinity, the surrounding ground has been scheduled by Dúchas The Heritage Service, which led to an archaeological condition for site testing being placed on the planning permission. A series of test-trenches was excavated covering the proposed foundations, driveway and service routes. Nothing of archaeological significance was uncovered.(Excavations Bulletin 2000)
Eoin Halpin, ADS Ltd, Unit 48 Westlink Enterprise Centre, 30-50 Distillery Street, Belfast BT12 5BJ.

Excavation licence number 01E0683
Testing, monitoring and excavation took place in advance of a twenty-house development at Magheracar, Bundoran, on the Leitrim/Donegal border. The proposed development site lies within an archaeological complex that includes a passage tomb, a wedge tomb and two standing stones. All of these monuments will be protected by the requisite buffer zones and will not be affected by the proposed development.
Geophysical surveying had revealed a number of anomalies that may indicate subsurface archaeological features. These were investigated through the manual excavation of four 20m by 20m areas. Two of these cuttings revealed possible archaeological features in the form of burnt areas and linear cut features. These cuttings were extended to discover the full extent of these features before excavation. At the same time, the remainder of the site was stripped of its topsoil, under supervision. Upon excavation, the cut features in Cutting C were interpreted as possible furrows of unknown date. There were no associated finds.
The burnt areas in Cutting D were further exposed and excavated, revealing a large corn-drying kiln with two flues. The kiln was stone-lined and exhibited evidence of extensive burning. One of the flues extended north outside the area of excavation, while the other extended southwards for a distance of almost 13m. No finds came from the kiln, although charcoal and bone samples may be able to provide a 14C date. The southern flue of the kiln cut a small pit, 0.2m deep, which contained a charcoal-stained fill and several large pieces of prehistoric pottery from at least four different vessels. They are likely to be Neolithic (some simple decoration is evident), but have yet to be examined by a pottery expert. The topsoil-stripping of the remainder of the site revealed two other areas of archaeological activity. An isolated collared urn filled with cremated material, completely intact and situated upright, was uncovered and barely missed by the machine. It was removed in a block of soil, relatively in one piece, and is in the process of being excavated in the lab by a conservator. Approximately 20m east of the urn, the remains of a circular stone platform were uncovered. Approximately 6m wide, this semicircle, comprising three concentric rings of flat stone slabs, was set in a low earth and stone mound. The northern half of this feature appears to have been removed without trace sometime in antiquity. Nothing was found within the circle or the mound except for two small blue glass beads and a few pieces of struck chert. A Bronze/Iron Age date for the feature is likely although its purpose has yet to be fully explored. A number of stray finds came from the topsoil across the site, most of which comprised struck chert and flint. A single hollow-based limestone arrowhead and a stone axe were included in the finds. (Excavations Bulletin 2001)
Christopher Read, North West Archaeological Services, Cloonfad Cottage, Cloonfad, Carrick-on-Shannon, Co. Leitrim.

References:

1. Borlase, W.C. 1897 The Dolmens of Ireland, 3 vols. London. Chapman and Hall, London.
2. Fagan, B.K. 1845-8 Ordnance survey, Hill Drawing Antiquity Books. Ms. Books 1-25. Compiled 1845-8 by Thomas Fagan. National Archives.
3. Herity, M. 1974 Irish Passage Graves. Dublin. Irish University Press.
4. Holly, D. 1976 Megalithic monuments at Tullaghan. Journal of Cumann Seanchas Breifne (Breifne Historical Society) 5 (17), 121-39.
5. Killanin, M.M. and Duignan, M.V. 1962 Shell Guide to Ireland. London. Ebury Press.
6. Killanin, M.M. and Duignan, M.V. 1967 (2nd ed.) The Shell guide to Ireland. London. The Ebury Press.
7. Killanin, M.M. and Duignan, M.V. (3rd edition; revised and updated by Harbison, P.) 1989 The Shell Guide to Ireland. Dublin. Gill and Macmillan.
8. Lockwood, F.W. 1901 Some notes on the old Irish sweat houses at Assaroe, Ballyshannon, and Kinlough, Co. Leitrim, and on several rude stone monuments near Bundoran and Ballyshannon. Ulster Journal of Archaeology 2nd Series, 7, 82-92.
9. Ó Nualláin, S. 1989 Survey of the megalithic tombs of Ireland, vol. 5, Co. Sligo. Dublin. Stationery Office.
10. Wood-Martin, W.G. 1887-8 The rude stone monuments of Ireland, parts III to VIII. Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland 18, 50-94, 118-59, 254-99, 367-81.

The Nine Stones (Standing Stones)

This is the entry on archaeology.ie:
Class: Stone row

Townland: COOLASNAGHTA

Scheduled for inclusion in the next revision of the RMP: Yes

Description: Marked 'The Ninestones' on the 1839 OS 6-inch map. On the E side of the pass between Slievebawn and the Black Banks and Mount Leinster. Nine low stones set in alignment orientated E-W (L 11.5m; distance between stones 1m-1.2m; H of stones 0.38m - 0.63m). According to OS Field Namebooks, erected to commemorate nine men murdered and buried nearby.
While the extant remains are hardly sufficient to permit classification as a stone row with certainty the remains bear close resemblance to many monuments of this class. In light of the tradition recorded by the OS the interpretation given must be regarded as tentative and a proper elucidation of the monument must await further investigation.

Compiled by: Claire Breen

Date of upload: 19 August 2011

Shevry (Standing Stones)

This is from the Tipperary Archaeological Inventory:

Situated on the summit of a natural rise, close to the W edge of a gradual fall, overlooking a valley at the base of the slope. The site consists of a flat central area (14.3m N-S; 15m E-W) enclosed by a compact earthen bank (Wth 2.3m; int. H 0.35-0.55m; ext. H 0.18-0.35m), less visible at S. An entrance gap (Wth 3m) is visible at ESE. There is a small standing stone (TN039-011002-) in the interior in the SW sector with a second stone (TN039-011003-) standing at the entrance at ESE, in line with the outer edge of the bank.

Annadorn (Passage Grave)

Further to Greywether's reference above:

From Irish Passage Graves, Neolithic Tomb-Builders in Ireland and Britain 2500 B.C. by Michael Herity

Dw. 6
ANNADORN TD.
Cromlech (1835)
Sheet 30

A rectangular chamber 1.8m across covered by a capstone is all that remains of a chamber approached from the north-east by a lintelled passage, which originally stood under a round cairn 18m in diameter. It stands about 46m (150') O.D.
Dubordieu, writing in 1802, described it as 'having been discovered, nearly 30 years ago, to contain within its circumference, which is about 60 yards, and towards the bottom, a large smooth stone, of a square figure, from seven to eight feet over, and supported by several other stones above three and a half feet high, forming underneath a kind of chamber, in which were found ashes, and a number of bones to appearance human; upon the surface of this large stone, when the smaller stones which were pyramidically arranged were removed, a quantity of black ashes were found. The entrance to this chamber was towards the north, and under several flat stones regularly disposed in front of each other, and extending to the outside of the cairn; these stones were some years ago taken away for building.'

Dubordieu 1802, 270; ASNI, Down, 78; Prelim. Survey 103; Borlase, vol. I, 286; Ó Nualláin 27.

Knockawaddra (Muskerry East By.) (Standing Stone / Menhir)

According to the Archaeological Inventory of County Cork, Vol. III – Mid-Cork, Anomalous Stone Group are: "… groups of stones, usually standing, which do not appear to conform to any known archaeological site type; an example might be pairs of standing stones set parallel to or contiguous with one another, instead of the usual arrangement of stone pairs. Some may just be fortuitous groups of stones of a random or natural state but others are likely to be remnants of partially destroyed or obscured archaeological monuments."

Drumlohan (Souterrain)

From archaeology.ie:

Description: Discovered during the removal of the outer bank of church site (WA024-033001-) at N in 1868 (Williams 1868-9). Rectangular chamber (dims. 3.35m x 1.5m; H at discovery 1.2m) with orthostatic walls and roofed with eight lintels. Ten ogham stones (WA024-033006- to WA024-033015-), which were utilised as lintels and sidestones, are preserved at the site.
The inscriptions have been read by Macalister (1945, vol. 1, 267-77) as: 1, MANU MAGUNO GATI MOCOI MACORBO; 2, CALUNOVIC[A] MAQI MUCOI LIT[ENI]; 3, MAQI-INI[...MAQI QE]TTEAS; 4, CUNALEGEA MAQI C[...]SALAR CELI AVI QVECI; 5, BIGU MAQI LAG [...]; 6, BIR MAQI MUCOI ROTTIS; 7, ...] MAQI NE[TACUN]AS; 8, DENAVEC[A MU]COI MEDALO; 9, BRO[INION]AS; 10, SOVALINI/ DEAGOS MAQI MUCO[I...]NAI. (Brash 1866-9; Rhys 1899; Kirwan 1985; 1987; Harbison 1992, 325)

The above description is derived from the published 'Archaeological Inventory of County Waterford' (Dublin: Stationery Office, 1999). In certain instances the entries have been revised and updated in the light of recent research.

Compiled by: Michael Moore.

Date of upload/revision: 9th May, 2011.

This monument is subject to a preservation order made under the National Monuments Acts 1930 to 2014 (PO no. 12/1933).

References:

1. Brash, R.R. 1868-9 On the Seskinan ogham inscriptions. County of Waterford. Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland 10, 118-30.
2. Harbison, P. 1992 The high crosses of Ireland: an iconographical and photographic survey, 3 vols. Dublin. Royal Irish Academy. Bonn. Dr. Rudolf Habelt GMBH.
3. Kirwan, E.M. 1985 The ogham stones at Drumlohan reconsidered. Decies, no. 29, 6-12.
4. Kirwan, E.M. 1987 Drumlohan: a survey of its antiquities. Decies, no. 35, 33-40.
5. Macalister, R.A.S. 1945 Corpus inscriptionum insularum celticarum. Dublin. Stationery Office.
6. Rhys, P. 1899 The Drumloghan ogams. Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland 29, 390-403.
7. Williams, W. 1868-9 On an ogham chamber at Drumloghan, in the County of Waterford. Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland 10, 35-9.

Coumeraglinmountain Megalithic Tomb (unclassified) (Chambered Tomb)

From archaeology.ie:

Description: Located in a fold on a steep W-facing slope overlooking a shelf on the E side of the ravine of the N-S Araglin River, with the stream c. 400m to the W. This is a wedge-shaped chamber (L 1.45m NE-SW; Wth 0.6m at NE to 0.8m at SW; H 0.5m) roofed by two lintels. The SE wall has two orthostats and some drystone walling, but the NW side is constructed entirely of drystone walling, apart from one upright at the SW end. There is a single backstone at NE. The chamber opens into a court (dims. c. 4m NE-SW; c. 2.8m NW-SE) defined by drystone walling with some uprights that are not set in the ground, and the court is likely to be a secondary feature.

Compiled by: Michael Moore. Date of upload: 6th May, 2011.

Dunhill (Portal Tomb)

From archaeology.ie:

Description: Situated in pasture on a fairly steep SE-facing slope of the N-S valley of the Annestown stream, which is c. 210m to the E. The roofstone (dims. 4m x 2.7m; T 1.2m) is supported by one orthostat. (Atkins 1896, 71-2; Borlase 1897, vol. 1, 57; Ó Nualláin 1983, 103)

The above description is derived from the published 'Archaeological Inventory of County Waterford' (Dublin: Stationery Office, 1999). In certain instances the entries have been revised and updated in the light of recent research.

Compiled by: Michael Moore.

Date of upload/revision: 16th May 2011.

References:

1. Atkins, R. 1896 The rude stone monuments of our own and other lands. Waterford and South East of Ireland Archaeological Journal 2, 60-80, 131-61.
2. Borlase, W.C. 1897 The Dolmens of Ireland, 3 vols. London. Chapman and Hall, London.
3. Ó Nualláin, S. 1983 Irish portal tombs, topography, siting and distribution. Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland 113, 75-105.

Ballynageeragh (Portal Tomb)

From archaeology.ie:

Description: Situated in pasture on a broad plateau with a slight E-facing slope. An oval roofstone (dims. 4m x 2.65m; T 0.7m) is resting on the septal-slab and the backstone with a cushion-stone between the roofstone and the backstone. The tomb, which faces SW, lacks portal-stones but the sidestones are present. It was investigated and conserved in 1939-40 when cremated bone, flint and charcoal were found in the chamber (Herity 1964). (Du Noyer 1864-6, 480; Atkins 1896, 68-9; Ó Nualláin 1983, 103; Harbison 1992, 325)

The above description is derived from the published 'Archaeological Inventory of County Waterford' (Dublin: Stationery Office, 1999). In certain instances the entries have been revised and updated in the light of recent research.

Compiled by: Michael Moore.

Date of upload/revision: 13th May 2011.

This monument is subject to a preservation order made under the National Monuments Acts 1930 to 2014 (PO no. 63/1938).

References:

1. Atkins, R. 1896 The rude stone monuments of our own and other lands. Waterford and South East of Ireland Archaeological Journal 2, 60-80, 131-61.
2. Du Noyer, G.V. 1864-6 On cromleacs near Tramore in the County of Waterford; with remarks on the classification of ancient Irish earthen and megalithic structures. Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland 8, 474-82.
3. Harbison, P. 1992 Guide to the national and historic monuments of Ireland. Gill and Macmillan Ltd., Dublin.
4. Herity, M. 1964 The finds from the Irish portal dolmens. Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland 94, pt. 2, 123-44.
5. Ó Nualláin, S. 1983 Irish portal tombs, topography, siting and distribution. Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland 113, 75-105.

Savagetown (Portal Tomb)

From archaeology.ie:

Description: Located on a shelf on a gentle W-facing slope, and facing E (upslope). The roofstone (L 3.4m; T 0.6m) is resting on a portal-stone and the S sidestone. The backstone is present but the rest of the tomb is obscured by a field bank. (Ó Nualláin 1983, 103)

The above description is derived from the published 'Archaeological Inventory of County Waterford' (Dublin: Stationery Office, 1999). In certain instances the entries have been revised and updated in the light of recent research.

Drumnasillagh (Court Tomb)

The following description is derived from both the published 'Archaeological Inventory of County Louth' (Dublin: Stationery Office, 1986) and the 'Archaeological Survey of County Louth' (Dublin: Stationery Office, 1991). In certain instances the entries have been revised and updated in the light of recent research.
Date of upload/revision: 17 July 2007

This court-tomb is incorporated in a roughly trapezoidal cairn some 30m long and 20m wide at the WSW, narrowing to 7.1m wide at the ESE. There is a well-defined court at the W leading to the gallery area which is covered by cairn material. The court, 7.5m wide and 6m deep, embraces almost three-quarters of a circle and is represented by 14 orthostats, 7 at either side. Two large slabs lie at the inner end of the court. A single façade stone stands beyond the N arm of the court. Two kerb stones are exposed at the E end of the cairn and a field wall runs along its southern side. (PRIA (C) 1960, 128-9)

Ballinvally (Cup and Ring Marks / Rock Art)

The entry for this stone on the SMR at archaeology.ie:

Class: Rock art

Townland: BALLINVALLY

Scheduled for inclusion in the next revision of the RMP: Yes

Description: This large erratic (dims c. 2.6m x c. 1.5m; H 0.95m at E, uphill, to 1.95m at W) is located on the steep NW-facing slope of Patrickstown Hill. It has art on its upper surface, which is divided in two by a crack, and it has been fully recorded by Shee Twohig (et al. 2010, 16). The N part has three concentric circles, while the S part has a motif of three concentric circles with a central dot connected by a line to a large, central, set of four or five concentric circles (diam. 0.7m). There is a third small concentric circle in the N part.

Compiled by: Michael Moore

Date of upload: 3 March, 2017

References:

1. Shee Twohig, E., Roughly, C., Shell, C., O’Reilly, C., Clarke, P. and G. Swanston 2010 Open-air rock art at Loughcrew, Co. Meath. Journal of Irish Archaeology, vol. 19, 1-28.

Loughscur (Court Tomb)

From archaeology.ie:

Class: Megalithic tomb - wedge tomb

Townland: LOUGHSCUR

Scheduled for inclusion in the next revision of the RMP: Yes

Description: Situated on a slight rise in pasture in a broad E-W valley with the W end of Lough Scur c. 0.25km to the ENE. This is a rectangular structure (dims 7m E-W; c. 2.7m N-S) of which only the S and part of the W sides survive. It is composed of contiguous orthostats (max. dims 1.2m x 0.2m; H 0.5m) with some displaced stones (max. dims 1.5m x 1m) present. The stones are situated on a grass-covered mound (basal dims 17m E-W; 12.5m N-S; H 0.5m at E to 1m at N).

The above description is derived from 'The Archaeological Inventory of County Leitrim' compiled by Michael J. Moore (Dublin: Stationery Office, 2003). In certain instances the entries have been revised and updated in the light of recent research.

Date of upload: 23 September 2008

Clonasillagh (Passage Grave)

From archaeology.ie: This has been described by Eogan (2000, 11-13) as follows: ‘This is also situated on a knoll and is very overgrown. The knoll, which is much higher than the adjacent features, is rounded and somewhat pudding-bowl in shape, and as such it contrasts with the other knolls in the area which are long Bakers. In Prof. Phillips' opinion it is "probably a kame deposited in a lake by melt water flowing out from a glacier during the last ice age c. 22,000-14,000 years ago." The view is slightly more extensive than that from Site 2 [ME010-044----] and portions of Slieve na Calliagh range are visible. This almost circular monument, 26 by 25m in external diameter, has thirty-seven stones, thirty-one being in their original positions. If the gaps are filled, then about nineteen stones are missing, and this would have made a total of about fifty-six stones.

Externally, 7m to the south-west, there is an isolated stone (No. 12a). This may have been a removed kerbstone. Internally there is a somewhat curved depression towards the centre. Within it, or close to it, are four stones in a disturbed position (Nos. A-D). Apart from No. A, these are not sufficiently large to have served as orthostats or capstones, so their function has not been established. However, it is possible that this might be the chamber area. The other portions within the circle have a spread of smallish stones, possibly lm or so in height. There are also some smaller stones outside the kerb. No art is visible. Professor Phillips reports that the materials of the stones are as follows:
A – Well bedded limestone with shale partings. This rock type can be found as bedrock along the River Black water between Kells and Navan. B-D and 1-37 – All these stones are composed of massive greywacke (Silurian age) which is often coarse grained and cleaved. Several stones contain elliptical calcareous concretions. This rock type is well exposed as bedrock on the hill of Carrigasimon above the north side of the River Blackwater, upstream from this site.’ (Eogan 2000)

Coolcreen (Barrow / Cairn Cemetery)

From archaeology.ie

...a group of five barrows (OF037-008001/002/003/005-). According to local tradition these barrows are located on a hilltop which was the inauguration site of the O’Flanagans of Cinél Arga (Feehan 1979, 143). It is possible that these burial mounds form part of a ritual landscape associated with this inauguration site.

Rathangan

From archaeology.ie and worth quoting in full:

Class: Ringfort - rath

Townland: RATHANGAN (Rathangan ED)

Scheduled for inclusion in the next revision of the RMP: Yes

Description: The royal Fort of Rathangan was described in one of the earliest Irish poems as the burial place of the kings of the local clan. The poem records that the fort was located close to an oak woodland and that the ringfort belonged to the following local kings:

‘The fort over against the oak-wood,
Once it was Bruidge’s, it was Cathal’s,
It was Aed’s, it was Ailill’s,
It was Conaing’s. it was Cuiline’s,
And it was Maelduin’s.
The fort remains after each in its turn
And the kings asleep in the ground’ (Meyer 1913, 93).

The modern name Rathangan is derived from a corruption of the Gaelic name of the bivallate royal ringfort Ráth Iomgháin meaning the fort of Iomgháin (Bradley et. al. 1986, 413). In the year 801 the Annals of the Four Masters recorded that ‘Flaithiusa, son of Cinaedh, lord of Ui-Failghe, was slain at Rath-Imghain’ (AFM, 413). The Annals of Ulster recorded the same killing as happening four years later in 805 (AU, 291-2). Fitzgerald (1906-8, 137, 158) suggests that in the late 12th century Rathangan was granted by Strongbow to Maurice FitzGerald, ancestor of the FitzGerald lords of Offaly.

However Bradley (1986, 413) suggests that Rathangan may have been granted to Robert de Bermingham, as part of his cantred of Offaly (Orpen 1911-20, I, 381). By the middle of the 13th century the lands of Rathangan now forming the manor of Rathangan belonged to the FitzGeralds. In 1270 the custody of the manor of Rathangan [Rathingan] which formed part of the lands of the recently deceased Sir Maurice FitzGerald were granted to Thomas de Clare, brother of the earl of Gloucester, through his marriage with Juliana FitzMaurice, daughter of Sir Maurice FitzGerald (Cal. doc. Ire, 141). In 1308 Gerald, heir to Maurice FitzGerald, held his court at the manor of Rathangan (Cal. justic. rolls, Ire. Edw. II, 82). Rathangan was located on the borders of the Ui Concobhair/O’Connor territory of Ui Failghe. In 1331 on the death Richard FitzThomas, earl of Kildare the burgage rent of Rathangan was valued at £6 3s. 2d., indicating that there were 120 burgages (MacNiocaill 1964, 102; Bradley et. al. 1986, 414).

This bivallate royal ringfort is located at the W end of the village on high ground with good views in all directions. The 19th century C of I church and graveyard located 50m to the E probably stands on the site of the medieval church (KD017-011003-) and graveyard (KD017-011007-).

Ringfort described in the Ordnance Survey letters in 1837 as following; ‘this mound is at present planted, and is about one hundred and eighty [54.8m] in diameter, and measures from its base to its summit, slantwise, about forty two feet [12.8m], which would probably make about twenty eight feet [8.5m] in perpendicular height. It is encircled with a large ditch which is about seven hundred and thirty eight feet [225m] in circumference; and a fosse, which is partly destroyed, mostly on the south and east side’ (O’Flanagan 1927, 50).

Ringfort described by Bradley (1986 et. al., 418) as ‘a very large raised platform surrounded by a deep ditch and counter-scarp bank. The interior diameter is 60m E-W by 58m N-S. There is an internal bank, 2m wide, with a maximum height of 2m on the NE. The bank is eroded on the N and SW sides. There are a few raised areas in the centre but no coherent pattern can be discerned. It is surrounded by a ditch 6.5m in width and 4-5m in depth below the top of the internal bank. There are traces of a counter-scarp bank particularly on the E and S sides. There is a causeway over the ditch on the E’. Sweetman (1999, 13-14) suggests that the Anglo-Normans, re-fortified the ringfort in the late 12th century, which 'was altered to make it into a ringwork castle'.

Present remains consist of a fairly well-preserved, roughly circular, raised area (int. diam. 58m) enclosed by a broad, inner, earthen bank (Wth 9m; int H 1.7m; ext H 5m) best preserved along the N and E, denuded along the W and reduced to a scarp at SW, and by a U-shaped fosse (Wth 4m; D 2m). An entrance gap (Wth 3m) in the bank has a corresponding causeway (Wth 5.2m) across the fosse at SE. Mature oaks grow on the bank E-S-W, and both the outer faces of the bank and fosse are overgrown with briar and nettle. Two ESB poles stand on the outer face of the fosse, at N and SE. In 1955 'a slight outer bank' was noted (SMR file) today this outer bank which has been mainly levelled and is visible as a low rise of ground that is only visible when the vegetation cover is low such as in the winter months. (Otway-Ruthven 1980, 10; Bradley et al 1986 vol. 4, 418; Herity 2002, 133 (130); Stout 1997, 115-16)

Compiled by: Gearóid Conroy

Revised by: Caimin O'Brien

Date of revised upload: 4 March 2016

This monument is subject to a preservation order made under the National Monuments Acts 1930 to 2014 (PO no. 10/1970).

References:

1. AFM - Annals of the kingdom of Ireland by the Four Masters from the earliest period to the year 1616, ed. and trans. John O'Donovan (7 vols., Dublin, 1851; reprint New York, 1966)
2. AU - Annála Uladh, The Annals of Ulster; otherwise Annála Senait, Annals of Senat; a chronicle of Irish affairs, 431-1131, 1155-1541, ed. W.M. Hennessy and B. MacCarthy, (4 vols., Dublin 1887-1901)
3. Bradley, J., Halpin, A., and King, H.A. 1986 Urban Archaeological Survey - County Kildare (4 vols.). Unpublished report commissioned by the Office of Public Works, Dublin.
4. Cal. doc. Ire. - Calendar of documents relating to Ireland 1171-1307, ed. H.S. Sweetman (5 vols., London, 1875-86).
5. Cal. justic. rolls, Ire. Edw. II - Calendar of the justiciary rolls or proceedings in the court of the justiciar of Ireland, 1 to 7 years of Edward II. Revd. by Margaret C. Griffith (Dublin, 1956)
6. Herity, M. (ed.) 2002 Ordnance Survey Letters Kildare. Dublin. Four Masters Press.
7. Mac Niocaill, G. 1964 The red book of the earls of Kildare. Dublin. Irish Manuscripts Commission.
8. Meyer, K. 1913 Ancient Irish Poetry.
9. O'Flanagan, Rev. M. (Compiler) 1927 Letters containing information relative to the antiquities of the county of Kildare collected during the progress of the Ordnance Survey in 1838. Bray.
10. Orpen, G.H. 1911-20 Ireland under the Normans (1169-1216), 5 Vols. Oxford. Clarendon.
11. Otway-Ruthven, A.J. 1968 A history of medieval Ireland. London. Ernest Benn.
12. Stout, M. 1997 The Irish ringfort. Dublin. Four Courts Press.
13. Sweetman, D. 1999 The medieval castles of Ireland. Cork. The Collins Press.

Parkmore Cairn (Cairn(s))

From archaeology.ie:

Class: Cairn - unclassified

Townland: PARKMORE (Newcastle By.)

Scheduled for inclusion in the next revision of the RMP: Yes

Description: Situated in a small coniferous plantation on top of high ground in upland area with good views in all directions. Possible megalithic tomb (WI024-007----) located 130m to the NNW. Possible kerbed cairn (diam. 9m) defined by a contiguous ring of small upright boulders (H 0.3m-0.8m; Wth 0.45m) with an outer scree of loose cairn material (diam. 10.6m) and a possible central cist described by Price (1934, 52-3). Today only seven contiguous orthostats can be seen forming th kerb on the NNW side as the monument is ccovered in thorn bushes. However the remains of a central cist can be seen standing 2.5m in from the inner face of the kerb stones. This cist is formed by low upright stones (c. H 0.5m) forming a box-like structure with no capstone visible.
Described by Price (1934, 52-3) as a ’circle of stones, 30 feet [9.1m] in diameter, in the townland of Parkmore, in the corner of a field adjoining the road; the stones are small and set close together. In the centre is what looks like the remains of a central chamber consisting of 9 stones, enclosing a space about 4 feet [1.2m] long and about the same width. One of these stones is 2 feet [0.6m] above ground, and the others about 18 inches [0.45m]; there is no sign of any cap-stone. The whole space inside the circle is covered with small stones, and they extend for 2 or 3 feet [0.6m-0.9m] outside the circle; the surface is slightly higher than the level of the field. The monument has the appearance of a very much ruined cairn and burial cist. It is about 160 yards S.S.E. of the most westerly of the two pillar-stones (WI024-007----) already described. The pillar-stones are much larger than any of the stones in the circle’.

The above description is derived from the published 'Archaeological Inventory of County Wicklow' (Dublin: Stationery Office, 1997). In certain instances the entries have been revised and updated in the light of recent research.

Compiled by: Caimin O'Brien

Date of upload/revision: 16 November 2012

References:
1. Price, L. 1934 The ages of stone and bronze in Co. Wicklow, Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 42C, 31-64.

Pass of Kilbride (Round Barrow(s))

From archaeology.ie:

Class: Barrow - unclassified
Townland: PASS OF KILBRIDE
Scheduled for inclusion in the next revision of the RMP: Yes
Description: On a prominent hillock with good views to the N, E and S. Possible ringfort (WM034-005----) 350m to SE. A small roughly circular flat-topped, mound (diam. 5.2m N-S; 6.3m E-W; H c. 1.3m) defined by a scarp with slight narrow fosse (Wth 1.6m; D 0.2m) around the base of the mound best preserved from W-N-E, not visible at S. Traces of a very slight depression visible on the centre of the mound.

Monument surveyed in 2015 and described by McGuinness (2015, 60-3) as following: ‘Monument comprises a roughly square-shaped mound with rounded corners (8.5m NNW-SSE x 9.2m WSW-ENE), flat top (5m N-S x 5.2m E-W) and steeply sloping sides, delimited by a shallow ditch formed of four straight lines (Overall dims. 11.5m NNW-SSE x 13m ENE-WSW), the corners sunken deeper than the channels connecting them as if the ends overlapped; possibly these represent pits or hollows left by decayed timber posts. Mound is oriented ENE-WSW (NE-SW), being higher and more massive at SW end; ditch is slightly trapezoidal in shape, the SW end measuring 11.9m in length while the NE end measures only 10.4m. Where highest at SW, mound rises 1.26m above ditch. Ditch appears to be best preserved on W side, where a thorn tree growing from side of mound arches over it; here it is up to 0.16m below external ground level. Ditch at E side appears at least as deep but is densely overgrown and inaccessible; ditch is very poorly preserved on S side. Ditch ranges in width from 1.6m at well-preserved W side up to 1.8m at N side. Immediately Beyond ditch on W side is what appears to be a low external bank—as this is by no means certain, maximum dimensions for the monument given above are derived from the ditch This barrow, marked ‘Moateen’ on OS 6” map, is strikingly positioned on flat summit of S end of low but very prominent glacial hillock with long axis running N-S, just N of the N6; and, but for vegetation, there would be good views in all directions. A raised bog visible only a short distance to N has been harvested for peat on an industrial scale, as have other raised bogs to S. This hillock is at N edge of the pass or strip of dry land that gives the townland its name—less than 1km across at this point—which runs E-W between areas of bog that have been an impediment to movement since prehistoric times: a remarkable cluster of ancient trackways has been discovered in the bogs to the S, the nearest cluster being c. 1km to SSE (WM034-009----/010---/01-2----/014----/015----), including one (WM034-014----) that has been radiocarbondated to 1390-1046 cal. BC, placing it around the junction of Middle and Late Bronze Age. The ASI document a possible ringfort (WM034-005----) about 350m to SE. Although not yet examined by the survey-team, a ‘motte’ (WM034-003----) lying immediately S of the N6 c. 700m to WSW of the present site could, from the ASI account given on the NMS website, be interpreted as a bowl-barrow, perhaps with stepped or otherwise shaped summit like those at Slane More and elsewhere in Ireland (McGuinness 2012, 12-13): Steep-sided mound (H 2m), there is a low rise on the centre of the summit, the significance of which is unclear. At the base of the motte from NE-E-S-W to WNW there is a wide shallow fosse. No visible trace of a bailey…. Traces of linear earthworks in field to the SW are visible on Bing Maps…. [and] could be the remains of a medieval road associated with the motte. [NMS website]. Monument lies between two ruined medieval parish churches on sites which Leo Swan (1988, 13, 21) attributed to the early medieval period: Pass of Kilbride, with St Bridget’s Well (WM034-001----/002----), only c. 700m to W but not certainly of early medieval date; and Clonfad, 2.5km to ENE, with a ruined medieval church, standing stone, early medieval high cross (Crawford 1927, 1-2) and a burial ground, including ‘the bishop’s grave’, surrounded by sub-circular earthworks representing the enclosing monastic vallum (WM027-066----/067----). The unusual rectilinear earthwork described here is not obviously a barrow, and indeed, as one ASI fieldworker observed on 8/6/71, ‘It does not appear to belong to any of the known classes of antiquity in Ireland’ [SMR file]. Nonetheless, it is a flat-topped mound surrounded by a ditch, which—angularity of plan aside—are features found in other Westmeath barrows; it is very strikingly located on a glacial hillock with excellent visibility, a type of location common for barrows in this and other counties; and the recognition of a second, prominently sited rectilinear barrow (WM027-027----) only c. 8km to NE seems to suggest that it is indeed a barrow, albeit of a hitherto unknown type in Ireland'.

Compiled by: Caimin O'Brien based on details provided by David McGuinness.

Date of upload: 10 February 2016
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