The Canton of Neuchâtel lies in the far western part of Switzerland between the French border and the Lake of Neuchâtel. It's capital is the City of Neuchâtel.
The area was ruled for many years by the dynasty of Count Ulrich von Fenis who took over the town and its territories in 1034.The dynasty prospered and by 1373 all the lands now part of the canton belonged to the count. In 1405, the cities of Bern and Neuchâtel entered a union. The lands of Neuchâtel passed to the lords of Freiburg about a century later, and then in 1504 to the French house of Orléans-Longueville (Valois-Dunois).
When the house of Orléans-Longueville became extinct with Marie d'Orleans-Longueville's death in 1707, the Principality of Neuchâtel (German: Fürstentum Neuenburg) went to King Frederick I in Prussia of the Berlin-based Hohenzollern, who then ruled Neuchâtel in personal union. Napoléon Bonaparte deposed King Frederick William III of Prussia as prince of Neuchâtel and appointed instead his chief of staff Louis Alexandre Berthier.
In 1814 the principality was restored to Frederick William III. A year later he agreed to allow the principality to join the Swiss Confederation, then not yet an integrated federation, but a confederacy, as a full member. Thus Neuchâtel became the first and only monarchy to join the otherwise entirely republican Swiss cantons. This situation changed in 1848 when a peaceful revolution took place and established a republic, in the same year that the modern Swiss Confederation was transformed into a federation. King Frederick William IV of Prussia did not give in immediately and several attempts at counter-revolution took place. In 1857, Frederick William renounced his claims on the area.
The canton is well-known for its wines, which are grown along the Lake Neuchâtel, and for its absinthe. The Val-de-Travers is famous as the birthplace of absinthe, which has now been re-legalized both in Switzerland and globally.
Lake Neuchâtel has been lived by and on for millenia. The latenium is an archeology museum located in Hauterive, a suburb of Neuchâtel.