The axe-head carvings on the centre stone were discovered by Ian McNeil Cooke and were dismissed somewhat contemptuously by the professional archaeologists until the year they actually saw them for themselves! To be fair, they have rightly credited Ian with the discovery.
Boscawen (dwelling at an elder tree - where has the awful Boskawen spelling come from?) is the name of two holdings in St Buryan parish, which might have been under the common ownership of a family who then took their surname from them (now the family of Lord Falmouth). The two are Boscawen-ros (Boscawen of the roughland) and Boscawen-un/Boscawen-noon (Boscawen of the downs).
A manuscript of c.1680 gives the same Cornish name for this circle and the Merry Maidens. It calls both Dauns Meyn (dance of stones). Lhuyd (1700) gives the Cornish name of the Boskednan Nine Maidens as Meyn yn Dauns (stones in a dance), and 18th century mining bounds gives the Tregeseal circle the name Meyn an Dauns (stones of the dance). The curious Treen Common circle (Zennor Cirque) has the Cornish name Lowarth an Dyjy (garden of the cottage), supporting my suspicion that it's a settlement enclosure.