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Leafield Barrow (Round Barrow(s)) — Miscellaneous

Details of Leafield barrow on Pastscape

(SP 31611541) Leafield Barrow (NAT) Tumulus (NR) (1) Leafield barrow. A round barrow, north of the village, 320ft in circumference, 11ft 6ins high on west end and 8ft on east. Grass-grown and planted with trees, it has the appearance of having been opened. (2) The mound stands in permanent pasture on the highest point of a low hill. It is egg-shaped with the large end towards the north west and has a flattened and disturbed top on which can be seen a low lateral bank that is probably recent. No traces of a ditch can be seen. An OS trig pillar stands on top and the north east side has been encroached upon by a reservoir. Certainly a substantial feature, but it cannot be said categorically to be a barrow. Published 1:2500 survey revised. (3) (SP 31601541) Leafield Barrow (NAT) (4) SP 316155. Leafield Barrow, round barrow, scheduled. (5) SP 31611540. Round barrow, c. 25m in diameter and 4m high, listed. (6) The motte, located on a small hill, measures 38 metres across and is 4 metres high. It has a flat oval summit and there is a square feature with an internal depression which has been interpreted as being the remains of a stone keep, similar to that at the nearby motte and bailey castle in Ascott d'Oyley. The motte is in the centre of a series of earthworks including medieval ridge and furrow cropmarks and the possible remains of a bailey. There is no evidence of a ditch around the base of the motte and the eastern side has been damaged by the building of a reservoir. Please note that the site has been identified as a motte castle whereas before it was believed to be a Bronze Age barrow. The previous sources all cite it as a barrow. (7) The Oxfordshire Historic Environment Record contains the same information stated in sources 1-7 but includes additional references and a number of photographs of the site. (8)
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22nd May 2016ce

Crawley (Long Barrow) — Miscellaneous

Details of long barrow on Pastscape

(SP 33711129) Long Barrow (NR). (1) Crawley. The remaining half of a long barrow, 107 ft long and 83 ft wide, was excavated by Akerman with two men for one day in 1857. Three skeletons were found lying east and west. At the waist of one of them was a small bronze buckle less than one inch in diameter. (2) Anglo-Saxon and now in the Ashmolean Museum (4). Crawford states, "The burials found by Akerman were clearly secondary interments of the Saxon period. There is no doubt that this is a genuine Long Barrow". (3) Later excavation in 1864 found skeletons and a few sherds of RB pottery, (5) now lost (6). Human remains and Roman coins have been found in the fields to the south and east. (2-6) Of the two terraces published on 25" only the west one survives; the other having been ploughed out and at present under cabbages. No remains are to be seen in the grass field south of the hedge. There is now nothing on the ground that can be identified as the remains of a long barrow. (7)
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22nd May 2016ce

Waterman's Lodge Barrow (Round Barrow(s)) — Miscellaneous

Details of barrow on Pastscape

SP 334182. An unrecorded round barrow (not visible on air-photos, RAF, 1947 and 1961). (1)
Oxford Museum with the same authorities note this site at SP 33341813. Perambulation located the mound at SP 33341810. Egg-shaped rather than round, with the thicker end to the south-west and no ditch. A forest ride abuts this south-west end but does not seem to have eroded it. Possibly a very short long barrow but its orientation is peculiar. Surveyed at 1:2500. (2)
SP 33341813. A mound, c. 14m in diameter and c. 2m high at Waterman's Lodge, listed as a round barrow. (3)
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22nd May 2016ce

Slatepits Copse Long Barrow — Miscellaneous

Details of long barrow on Pastscape

(SP 32891651) Long Barrow (NR) (1) Remains of Long Barrow rediscovered Oct 24th 1922. It lies 66 paces east of main north-south ride, at a point 240 paces south of point of intersection of the rides. It is 97ft long (taped) and about 6ft high (estimated). Oriented approximately east to west). At the eastern end are three large stones at right angles:- 'A' = 3ft 10ins actual height, 6ft 8ins wide, 1ins thick and 2ft 9ins vert height. 'C' appears to be 4ft 7ins wide, and is certainly 2ft 6ins, it is standing upright but partially covered. 'B' leans eastwards and is either a fallen lintel or upright of a chamber; 'A' and 'C' are 4ft 10ins apart. Digging west of chamber only and that evidently only superficial; well worth preservation and eventual excavation. Much black earth to south of mound. (2) Slate pits Copse: Long Barrow. (3) Located at SP 32901652, this barrow is much as described above. The cist is still clearly visivble and stone 'B' is almost certainly a leaning upright. The dark earth is at present covered by dense seasonal undergrowth. Resurveyed at 1:2500. (4) SP 330165. Slate pits Copse long barrow, scheduled. (5)
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22nd May 2016ce

Churchill Copse Long Barrow — Miscellaneous

Details of long barrow on Pastscape

(SP 33191688) Long Barrow in Churchill Copse (note name) is a long barrow though a short one (24 paces). Its position is incorrectly shown in the VCH, from which it was plotted here (since corrected). It stands on north side of the long and straight riding (east-west), 115 paces west of the north-south riding. It has been dug all along the middle and across the middle; no ditches or big stones. Maximum height about 3ft 4ins; oriented east to west. (1)
This barrow is at SP 33171685 but is otherwise as described above. Surveyed at 1:2500. (2)
(SP 33171685) Long Barrow (NR) (3)
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22nd May 2016ce

Well Ground Long Barrow — Miscellaneous

Details of long barrow on Pastscape

SP 3141 1852. A long barrow on Well Ground, SE of Ascott-under-Wychwood village was discovered by John Campbell in October 1976 and surveyed in April 1977 (see illustration card). It sits on a spur facing NW and jutting into Evenlode Valley. The
mound is about 55-60m across with ditch most clearly visible to the north. Plough damage has almost totally destroyed any signs of the west end of the mound. (1)
The long barrow has been the subject of previous archaeological field investigation. The remains of an extant mound and quarry ditches were first described and surveyed by bond and Campbell in 1976/7. Subsequently the barrow was inspected by Brown in 1978, who further notes the presence of a mound, 60m long and 25m wide, with extant quarry ditches, but describes that extensive plough damage had virtually removed the western end of the barrow. It would appear that the continued ploughing of the barrow has now removed any above ground evidence of the mound and to have infilled its associated quarry ditches. It is further uncertain as to the extent of disturbance that has been caused to below ground archaeological deposits as a result of cultivation. (2)
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22nd May 2016ce

Bladon Camp (Hillfort) — Miscellaneous

Details of hillfort on Pastscape

(SP 457138) Round Castle [NAT] Camp [NR] (1) Round Castle: a probable Iron Age hill fort of oval shape covering an area of about 2 1/2 acres. It had two lines of banks and ditches, but subsequent embanking and ditching make it impossible to be
exact about them, or about the position of its entrance. (2) The outer bank is slight, but the inner bank, of which only
a portion remains, measures 5ft in height from the bottom of the ditch. (3)
The remaining features of this probably originally bivallate enclosure are an almost complete internal bank with a recently
recut ditch and incomplete outerwork consisting again of a recut ditch but with a substantial scarp to the inside. These recent ditches pose a problem in that they virtually obliterate, or render difficult to identify, the extent of the original ditches; for this reason they are not, except where certainly part of the earthwork, shown on the survey. A further difficult in identification is caused by digging and surface quarrying around the west and north sides of the earthworks. As a result of material dumped in linear mounds it is impossible from visual inspection to ascertain which, if any, represent the alignments of the original banks.The site falls on the summit of a slight rise and though probably an IA fort the name "hillfort" in this instance is a misnomer. Divorced survey at 1:2500. (4)
SP 4570 1399. Salvage excavation of a section through the rampart showed it was constructed of clay with sand dump line, faced by thin stone walls 6m apart. Burning had taken place at the front of the ramparts. Early Iron Age pottery was obtained from the old ground surface. (5)
SP 45681380. The remains of a small multivallate hillfort known as Bladon camp. The hillfort defences include two concentric oval ramparts with outer ditches, enclosing an area up to 200 metres by 180 metres. Both ramparts are of stone rubble construction, partly levelled. The ditches have become partly infilled over time. The original entrances are not clearly defined but were probably located to the north western and south eastern sides of the site. A partial excavation was undertaken in 1988 and Early Iron Age pottery was recovered from the bottom of the ditch. Scheduled. (6)
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22nd May 2016ce

Ascott Under Wychwood Barrow (Long Barrow) — Miscellaneous

Details of long barrow on Pastscape

[SP 3001 1755] Mound shown but not described. (1) Excavations are expected to be completed this year on the site of a Neolithic long barrow near Ascott-under-Wychwood, soon to disappear under a road-widening scheme on the B.4437. Chalbury/Burford road. Starting in 1965, work by the Oxford City and County Museum on behalf of the Ministry of Public
Building and Works has revealed that the barrow seals a number of distinguishable phases of activity. Such a well-stratified
sequence has not been obtained from any site involving a long barrow in the country before, and samples taken for radio-carbon dating from each of the phases should provide an important reference date for many other British sites.
The earliest phase of activity is Mesolithic, suggested by finds of flint tools and other stone implements; these may date
to before 3,500 B.C., and are an important addition to our knowledge of the Mesolithic period in this part of England,
before the establishment of agricultural communities. The next phase is early Neolithic, with occupation on the site
demonstrated by pottery, stone and flint tools, and areas of burning, some possibly hearths, one of which was associated with
what may have been some kind of cooking pit. To this phase also may belong a series of post-holes, but more areas need to be
examined in detail before any definite structure can be identified. The pottery of this phase is as early and as finely
made as any in the British Neolithic, and comprises a most important assemblage.
The early Neolithic phase does not seem to have been immediately followed by the construction of the barrow itself, and there are indications that the site was under cultivation for a time. During this period, enough time elapsed for a soil profile to develop, and this is yielding valuable information about agricultural activity, vegetation and climate in Neolithic times. The most important discovery within the barrow last year was that of at least five discrete, burial deposits, three of which were contained inside stone cists defined by large stones, arranged in an unusual manner across the long axis of the barrow towards its narrower, western end. Provisional totals have reached a minimum of twenty individuals, many represented only by a few bones-a feature which is consistent in tombs of the same period in this country and which is generally attributed to a practice involving the burial or exposure of corpses elsewhere before final interment in the barrow. Preliminary examination of the remains has shown that their deposition took place when the bones were partially, and in some cases completely, free of tissue attachments.
Three of the cists contained undisturbed burial deposits. One cist did not contain burials and there is no reason to suggest
that it had originally done so. The provisional minimum total of largely disarticulated and incomplete inhumations includes two further burial deposits placed against the outer stone of the outer cist on each side of the mound, one being a single
inhumation. Adults and juveniles were recorded from each of the other burial deposits. One cist contained in addition, some
cremated bones. A number of anatomical anomalies have been recognised and a leaf shaped flint arrowhead was found solidly
embedded in the lower part of the spine of one individual. Grave goods comprised one leaf shaped arrowhead, and an incomplete
undecorated Neolithic bowl. The main periods of interest on the site may range from before 3,000 B.C. to 2,000 B.C., but samples recovered for Carbon 14 dating should provide absolute dates for critical phases. (2)
Ascott-under-Wychwood [SP 300 176]. In a final season the remainder of the long barrow was removed and the recording of
its external and internal structure was completed. Preliminary C14 results indicate a date of construction early in the 3rd
millenium B.C. The area between the two pairs of cists located in 1968 on either side of the long axis of the barrow was taken up by rubble packing; there was no central cist. On top of the packing, however, was an unaccompanied deposit of disarticulated bones. Mechanical stripping on the north side of the barrow mound revealed a line of quarry pits some IIm outside the outer wall. Irregular in plan and surface dimensions, these quarries had been dug to a depth of c. 8 ft 6 in. to 10 ft through extremely variable subsoil and had been severely undercut in places. Finds included flint flakes and antler picks, but no pottery. Any evidence for comparable quarry pits on the south side of the mound had been removed by nineteenth-century quarrying and the line of the present road. A combination of environmental and other evidence indicates
several pre-barrow phases including woodland clearance, occupation, possible cultivation and, finally, undisturbed grassland. More small hollows and other features were discovered, but no convincing pre-barrow structures were identified.
In the Roman period sections of the barrow revetment had been robbed out. In the area between the Neolithic quarry pits and
the north side of the mound, were numerous shallow quarries (probably for lime) of the first century A.D. These were sealed
by several ploughsoils of the Late Roman period. (Mr. D. Benson, Oxford City and County Museum). (3)
The barrow has been completely cleared and its site is marked by a patch of rough stony pasture. The anticipated road widening has not yet taken place. (4)
The soil profile beneath the Ascott under Wychwood long barrow is the most intensively studied local sequence and the environmental record stretches back to the early post-glacial times. At first the area had a light woodland cover that gave way to more closed woodland in the 4th millenium BC, and was then cleared in the early 3rd millenium BC. After a brief period as a settlement, the site became grassland until about 2,800 BC, when the barrow was built. A radiocarbon date suggests that the tomb was erected after 2943 +- 70 BC. (5)
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22nd May 2016ce

Fifield (Long Barrow) — Miscellaneous

Details of long barrow on Pastscape

(SP2177 1877) Long Barrow (NR) (1) (SP2172 1868) A long barrow on the RAF Training School airfield of Little Rissington, excavated in 1934 by Mr Hauting, was 160 ft long, 80 ft wide, 7 ft high and aligned E-W.
The western end of the barrow formerly extended across a lane forming the county boundary into Gloucestershire. The centre
had been dug previously along the axis of the barrow to remove a passage and central chamber. Mr Hauting dug two trenches across the widest part of the mound finding slight remains of what he believed had been a burial chamber at the side. One of the two sherds he found, but which has been lost, was said to have been of Beaker ware but the other, now in Gloucester City Museum, may have belonged to a Bronze Age overhanging rim cinerary urn. A brick bomb shelter was built into the barrow during the 1939-45 war. (2) Visible on APs. (3)
The remains of a long-barrow, situated on level ground at SP 21701866, and orientated NE-SW with the higher end to the NE. The SW end and much of the NW side of the barrow is missing, the ground being occupied by airfield land and trackway, formerly a public road. In its present state the barrow measures 48.0m in length and 28.0m in greatest width. The height increases from 0.5m to 1.8m on the NE. There are no visible remains of side ditches. An old excavation trench can be seen along the axis from the NE end for a distance of 23.0m, The bomb shelter has apparently been removed but a small brick structure remains in the NW side. The barrow is densely covered with bushes. AM survey at 1:2500: transferred to PFD. (4)
Scheduled as 'Long barrow' (5) A Neolithic long barrow is visible as an earthwork on aerial photographs. The site is centred on SP 2169 1865 and comprises a wedge shaped earthwork mound which measures 50 metres long and between 18 and 25 metres wide. A Second World War air raid shelter (SP 21 NW 22 / UID: 1402004) has been constructed against the northern side of the barrow, using material taken from the north-western corner of the site. This site has been mapped as part of the Cotswold Hills National Mapping Programme (7).
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22nd May 2016ce

Curn Barrow (Long Barrow) — Miscellaneous

Details of barrow on Pastscape

[SU 5202 8348] Tumulus [O.E.] (1) Curn Barrow, Blewbury. A long barrow Lat. 51 32' 51" Long. 1 14' 59" a hundred and thirty feet long oriented due east and west. It appears to have been under plough which would account for its low elevation and absence of ditches. There are no signs of it being disturbed. (2) This mound was excavated by H.H. Coghlan and C.F.B. Marshall in 1935 who formed no trace of ditches, portholes or pottery. The age and purpose of the mound was not determined, but it is probably of recent date. (3) This mound has been completely destroyed by the construction of racehorse gallops. (4)
SU 5201 8351 O.G.S. Crawford, 1921: notes long barrow, 135ft. x 60ft., 3ft. high. Not certainly a long barrow - field investigation, A.Upson, 1977. (5) This feature is visible on aerial photographs. The cropmark shows two ditches flanking a mound, resembling a long barrow. However a similar cropmark has been made to the northeast by modern rifle butts, and this feature may also be a modern feature associated with Churn Rifle Range, located 400m to the southeast. (6)
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22nd May 2016ce
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